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that of Rome; and it is only Jerusalem, which is above, which has, in the word of God, the honourable epithet of “ Mother of us all.” The Roman Church further claims to be the Mistress of all Churches; but the Saviour, who so often denounced the spirit of domination in individuals, and who said, “One is your Master even Christ,” has given no right to communities to domineer over other communities; nor was that right ever claimed till “the man of sin " had seated himself in the temple of God. There is no evidence whatever that the Church of Rome was founded by St. Peter, as the Romanists affirm, or by the joint labours of Peter and Paul. In the first Christian Council at Nice, all other Christian Churches were on an equality with that of Rome; and in the Fourth General Council (that convened at Chalcedon) it was declared that the Church at Constantinople should have equal honours with that of Rome, because the seat of Imperial Government was there.


“ WHOSOEVER shall say, that the Free Will of man, after the sin of Adam, was lost and extinguished, let him be accursed.” (Conc. Trid. Sess. VI. Can. V.)


Man is, in certain cases, a free agent, possessed of free will. He can do, or neglect, as he pleases, whatever nature suggests, for the preservation of the body, or promoting his temporal welfare. He hath, moreover, free will to perform the works of Satan, (John viii. 34,) both in thinking, willing, and doing, that which is evil. “ For the imaginations of the thoughts of man's heart are only evil continually.” (Gen. vi. 5.) But in spiritual matters, man is so depraved, his will so perverse, his understanding so stupid, and his passions so powerful, that“ being of his own nature fleshly and carnal, corrupt and naught, sinful and disa obedient to God, without any spark of goodness in him, without any virtuous or godly motion, only given to evil thoughts and wicked deeds ;" (Hom. for Whitsunday.) he “cannot turn and prepare himself by his own natural strength and good works, to faith and calling upon God.” (See Rom. viii. 7, 8; 1 Cor. ii. 14 ; xii. 3; 2 Cor. iii. 5; John xv. 5; vi. 44.) If man is thus helpless, it is evident that “ we have no power to do good works, pleasant and acceptable to God, without the grace of God by Christ preventing us, that we may have a good will, and working with us, when we have that good will." (Art. X.) In what way this grace of God in Christ is conveyed and communicated to man, we know not; the way of communicating it being invisible and incomprehensible. Our Saviour compares it to the wind that bloweth where it listeth, no man knows whence it cometh, and whither it goeth. When the air, naturally the most elastic of all bodies, is agitated, and violently driven by it, we feel its force, but we know nothing of its nature, and mode of operation ; so are we ignorant of the manner in which the grace of God operates on a sinner's heart, in disposing his will, and aiding his endeavours, to work out his salvation with fear and trembling; yet must we confess, that “it is God that worketh in us both to will and to do of his good pleasure." (See particularly, Eph. ii. 1--12.)

“It is the Holy Ghost, and no other thing, that doth quicken the minds of men, stirring up good and godly motions in their hearts, which are agreeable to the will and commandment of God, such as otherwise of their own crooked and perverse nature they should never have. As for the works of the Spirit, the fruits of faith, charitable and godly motions, if he have any at all in him, they proceed only of the Holy Ghost, who is the only worker of our sanctification, and maketh us new men in Christ Jesus. (Homily on Whitsunday.) From God, and from him “alone, all holy desires, all good counsels, and all just works do proceed.” (Collect at Evening Prayer.) It is he that must give us the spirit to think, and do always “such things as be rightful; that we, who cannot do any thing that is good, without him, may by him be enabled to live according to his will." (Collect, Ninth Sunday after Trinity.) “We are all become unclean, but we all are not able to cleanse ourselves, nor to make one another of us clean. We are by nature the children of God's wrath; but we are not able to make ourselves the children and inheritors of God's glory. We are sheep that run astray; but we cannot of our own power come again to the sheepfold, so great is our imperfection and weakness.'s (Homily on the Misery of Man.)

It is a contradiction to suppose, that a guilty, polluted, sinful creature, should have any pre-disposition to turn to God. The whole current and bent of the will set in another, and an opposite direction. Whoever becomes experimentally acquainted with the Gospel, is said to be born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of the will of God. Men naturally love darkness rather than light; and had much rather live and die in their sins, than believe and be converted. They must infallibly perish everlastingly, but for the sovereign

grace and mercy of God. He is indeed “found of them who sought him not, and heard of them who called not upon him ;” yet no man is saved contrary to his own will, nor is any violence done to it. How both free grace and free will co-operate, without destroying the proper character of either, is one of the many mysteries of godliness. Nor is it of much moment to argue it, provided all the glory of man's salvation be secured to God. “From him all gifts and graces come. Faith, without which no man shall see the Lord, St. Paul confesseth plainly, to be the gift of God. It is verily God's work in us, the charity wherewith we love our brethren. If, after our fall, we repent, it is by him that we repent, which reacheth forth his merciful hand to raise us up. If

any have to rise, it is he that preventeth our will, and disposeth us thereto. If after contrition we feel our consciences at peace with God through the remission of our sin, and so be reconciled again to his favour, and hope to be his children, and inheritors of everlasting life; who worketh those great miracles in us? Our worthiness, our deservings, and endeavours, our wits, and virtue? Nay, verily, St. Paul will not suffer flesh and clay to presume to such arrogancy; and therefore saith, all is of God, who hath reconciled us unto himself, by Jesus Christ."(Third Hom. for Rogation Week.)

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FIRST.-Its nature. Sin is either original, or actual.

I. Of original sin. Of this taint the whole human race are confessed to be partakers; of which, however, “the guilt is wholly washed away in baptism; so that though in the baptised there remains a disposition to sin, or concupiscence,

this is not really sin; and when St. Paul calls it so, he does it only because it is the effect of sin, and inclines men to sin.” The Virgin Mary is not to be included in this decree, but that concerning her is to be held, which Pope Sixtus IV. had before defined ; and all are declared anathematized who dare to condemn the notion of her being conceived without the taint of original sin. (Conc. Trid. Sess. V. Decret. de Orig. Pecc.)

II. Of actual sin, which is either mortal, or venial.

1. Mortal; that is, gross in its nature, and committed knowingly, wilfully, and deliberately. As these render the doer of them “children of wrath, and enemies of God, it is necessary that they be confessed; even the most secret, and although only committed against the two last commandments: for if there be any thing knowingly concealed, then the remission of the Priest avails nothing.” (Con. Trid. Sess. XIV. 5.)

2. Venial. These are sins of ignorance; or such as, being


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