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ARTICLE VI. All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this conftitution, shall be as valid against che United States under this constitution, as under the confederation.

This constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the conftitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding,

The senators and representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this constitution; but no religious test shall ever he required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.

ARTICLE VII. The ratification of the conventions of nine ftates, thall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between the states so ratifying the fame. DONE in Corrvention, by the unanimous consent of the fates present, the

seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty-feven, and of the Independance of the United States. of America the Twelfth. In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribid cur names,

GEORGE WASHINGTON; President. Signed also by all the Delegates which were present from twelve States.

Attejt. WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.
In CONVENTION, Monday September 17, 1787.

PRESENT,
The States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connefticut, Mr. Hamilton

from New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina and Georgia,

Resolved, T HAT the preceding constitution be laid before the United States in

1 Congress assembled, and that it is the opinion of this Convention, that it should afterwards be submitted to a convention of Delegates, chosen in each state by the people thereof, under the recominendation of its Legislature, for their aslent and ratification; and that each convention affenting oo, and ratifying the fame, should give notice thereof to che United States in Congress assembled.

RESOLVED, That it is the opinion of this convention, that as soon as the conventions of nine states shall have ratified this conftitution, the United States in Congress assembled, should fix a day on which Electors Thould be appointed by the states which shall have ratified the same, and a day on which the Electors should assemble to vote for the President, and the time and place for commencing proceedings under this constitusion. That after luch publication, the Electors Mould be appointed, and

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It was not until the campaign in 1758 that affairs assumed a more favourable afpect in America. But upon a change of administration, Mi. Pitt was appointed prime minister, and the operations of war became more vigorous and successful. General Amherst was sent to take possession of Cape Breton; and after a warm fiege, the garrison of Louisburgh furrendered by capitulation. General Forbes was successful in taking pofleflion of Fort Du Quesne, which the French thought fit to abandon. But General Abercrombie, who commanded the troops destined to act against the French at Crown Point and Ticonderoga, attacked the lines at Ti. conderoga, where the enemy were strongly entrenched, and was defeated with a terrible slaughter of his troops. After his defeat, he returned to his camp at Lake George.

The next year, more effectual measures were taken to subdue the French in America. General Prideaux and Sir William Johnson began the operations of the campaign by taking the French fort near Niagara *. General Amherst took pofleffion of the forts at Crown Point and Ticonderoga, which the French had abandoned.

But the decisive blow, which proved fatal to the French interests in America, was the defeat of the French army, and the taking of Quebec, by the brave General Wolfe. This hero was slain in the beginning of the action, on the plains of Abram, and Monsieur Montcalm, the French commander, likewise lost his life. The loss of Quebec was soon followed by the capture of Montreal by General Amherst, and Canada has remained ever fince in poilellion of the English.

Colonel Grani, in 1701, defeated the Cherokees in Carolina, and obliged them to fue for peace. The next year, Martinico was taken by Admiral Rodney and General Monckton ; and also the island of Grenada, St. Vincents, and others. The capture of these was foon followed by the surrender of the Havanna, the capital of the island of Cuba.

In 1763, a definitive treaty of peace was concluded at Paris between Great-Britain, France, and Spain, by which the English ceded to the French several illands in the Weit-Indies, but were confirmed in the pos. feflion of all North America on this fide the Milliffippi, except New Orleans, and a small district of the neighbouring country.

But this war, however brilliant the fuccefles, and glorious the event, prored the cause of great and unexpected misfortunes to Great Britain. Engaged with the combined powers of France and Spain, during several years, her exertions were surprizing, and her expence immense. To difcharge the debts of the nation, the parliament was obliged to have recourse to new expedients for raising money, Previous to the last treaty in 1963, the Parliament had been fatisfied to raise a revenue from the American Colonies by a monopoly of their trade.

It will be proper here to observe that there were three kinds of government ellablished in the British American Colonies. The first was a charter government, by which the powers of legislation were vested in a go. vernor, council, and assembly, chosen by the people. Of this kind were the governments of Connecticut and Rhode Island. The second was a

* General Prideaux was killed by the bursting of a mortar, before the furrender of the French.

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