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In contemplating future

. America, the mind is lost in the din of cities in harbours and rivers clouded with fails—and in the immensity of her population. Admitting her present population to be three millions, and calculating her progressive increase to continue doubling once in twenty years, as has hitherto been the case, at the end of one hundred years there will be ninety-six millions of souls in United America; which is twothirds as many as there are at present in all Europe. And when we confider the probable acquisition of people, by foreign emigrations, and that the interior and unfertled parts of America are amply sufficient to provide for this number, the presumption is strong, that this estimation will not differ materially from the event. · Europe is already aware of the rising importance of America, and be. gins to look forward with anxiety to her West India INands, which are the natural legacy of this continent, and will doubtless be claimed as such when America shall have arrived at an age which will enable her to main. tin her right.

The northern and southern states differ widely in their customs, climate, produce, and in the general face of the country. The middle states preserve a meliuin in all these respects; they are neither fo level and hot as the ftates fouth; nor fo hilly and cold as those north and east. The inhabi. tants of the north are hardy, industrious, frugal, and in general well in. formed; those of the south are more effeminate, indolent, and imperious. The fisheries and commerce are the finews of the north; tobacco, rice, and indigo, of the south. The northern states are commodiously situated for trade and manufactures; the southern, to furnish provisions and raw materials; and the probability is, that the fouthern states will one day be fupplied with northern manufactures instead of European, and make their remittances in provisions and raw materials.'

NOTE III. The following observations on the subject of the probable revenue that would result to the United States from the impoft and excise, were communicated by a gentleman who, from his situation in public life, from the attention he has paid to the sources of public revenue in this country, and from the pains he has taken to collect the facts on which the following estimate is founded, is capable of giving as accurate information on the subject as the nature of the case will admit.

• From the want of accurate documents of former collections under the ftate regulations, it is not possible to determine with precision, the amount of the revenue which may be relied on from these fources, under the new form of government.-I an, however, clearly of opinion, from several returns I have seen of the former import and excise duties, in some principal importing ftares, that after the regulations adopted by Congress, have had their

complete operation, the produce of these duties, without encouraging contraband, or other frauds on the revenue, may be estimated at 2,000,000 dollars. This sum, it is true, will at present fall short of what is necessary to defray the expences of the civil government, and to discharge the interest of the foreign and domestic debt.—But by the aids of a national bank properly organized, it will be easy and perfectly safe to borrow in anticipation, such fuens as may be deficient, annually for those purposes, pledging the above revenue (which will constantly en

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crease rapidly with the population of the country) as a fand of reimbursement. This is practised in other countries, under fimilar circumitances, in support of public credit, and may undoubtedly be done in this,-more especially, as the Capital of the domestic debt will be constantly decreasing by a judicious disposal of lands in the Western Territory, and means may be devised of inducing the domestic creditors to agree to a redukion of the present rate of interest.

With respect to direct taxes, I am of opinion, that in times of peace, little, if any, recourse need be had to them :-It is, however, absolutely necessary that the general government should be invested with the power of levying them, because in times of war, or the calamities to which all nations are subjected, the fources of impoft and excise may be so diminished as not to be adequate to the means of national defence—and every government ought undoubtedly to have the means of preserving itself.

I know it has been faid, that on such great occafions, requifitions may
be relied on; but past experience proves the fallacy of this observation;
for if during a war, whose object was to rescue the whole body of the peo-
ple, from the most ignominious Navery, the earnest and repeated recom-
inendations of Congress, could not draw forth from the Itates any con-
tributions of money in the least degree proportionate to the public exi
gencies, what could be expected on future occasions ? Nothing else than
lubjecting the citizens of the states moit contiguous to the scene of action
to a ruinous depredation of property; whilit those in the distant ftates
would not only be perfectly free of any burthen, but dispute, when the
danger was over, the justice of reimbursement.–To such acts of violation
of private rights it is well known that the citizens of New York, Jersey,
and Pennsylvania, were peculiarly subjected, during the late war; and if
they are wise, they will never again expose themselves to the same hazard."
Number of Representatives according to the return of the Cenfus now
made from the several States, if the ratio of representation established be of
No. of Representatives i for fif ı for if 1 for if ı for
from

30000 33000 34000 40000
Vermont
New Hamphire

4 4 3
Massachusetts

15 14 14
Rhode Ifand
Connecticut

7 7

6 New-York

9 New Jersey

5 5 5
Pennsylvania

13
Delaware
Maryland

9
8

6
Virginia

19
18

15
Kentuckey
North Carolina

8
Georgia
And allowing South-Carolina, which state has made no return, upon a
fupposition 5 members, in evəry, case, the total number of members
in cach cafe would then be
Total

104

2

2

2

2

4

I 2

2

2

2

1

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S c H E DUL

U E Of the whole Number of Persons within the several Districts of the UNITED STATES,

according to an Ax « Providing for the Enumeration of the Inhabitants of the UNITED STATES," passed March the Firt, One Thousand Seven Hundred and Ninety-one.

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Free white.ee white Free white fe- All other
males of 16 males un males, includ-free

per-
years and upder axteen ing heads of cons.

wards, includ lyears. tamilies. DISTRICT S.Jing heads of

families.

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Truly stated from the original returns deposited in the office of the Secretary of

State.

October 24, 1791,

THOMAS JEFFERSON.

EVANS's

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CORRECTED AND IMPROVED,

Shewing the DISTANCES between the PRINCIPAL Towns.

The Distance in British Miles, between two Places, is found in the

small Square at the Intersection of the Lines, drawn both Ways, from those Places; as for Example, the Distance from Bofton to Williamsburg 659 Miles; from Charlestown to Quebec 1396 Miles.

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Falls of Niagara, Province of Quebec 571 595 545 608

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PENSACOLA, West Florida 1826 1671 1469 1668 15581337 PHILADELPHIA, Pennsylvania 1372 454 619 97 296 186 35

Prince Town, West New Jersey

431415| 411 571 541 253 143

78

QUEBEC 626 669 2041 440 640 586 610 560 7041

ST. AUGUSTINE, East Florida 1726 1100 1057 315151114701154 1324 12861012

SAVANNAH, Georgia 220 1506 880 837 5351291|1250 9341104 1066 792)

WILLIAMSBURG, Virginia 534 754 972 346) 3031069) 757 602 400 599 489 268

or, Virginia

1741 708928 885 259 166/12431 670 6191 3138 512 402 110

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