« הקודםהמשך »
Religion and Government.] Mahometanism, in its worst_form, prevails throughout the states of Barbary. The emperor of Morocco is an arbi. trary prince. Algiers is governed by a Prince, called the Dey, elected by the army. The sovereigns of Tunis and Tripoli, called Beys, are not To independent as the former. These three states may be looked upon as republics of soldiers under the protection of the Grand Seignior. Algiers belongs to the Spaniards, and is a neft of pirates. On this coaft stood the famous city of Carthage, which was destroyed by the Romans. Among the great men Africa has produced, are Tertullian, Cyprian, Julius Africanus, Arnobius, Lactantius and St. Austin, all bishops of the church. The warriors of note are Hamilcar, Hannibal and Asdrubal. Among the poets are, Terence and Apuleius.
ZAARA, OR THE DESERT..
IT has Barbary north; Egypt and Nubia east; Negroland and Guinea
I fouth; and the Atlantic welt; 2500 miles long, and soo broad. • The air of this country is very hot, but wholesome to the natives. The soil is generally sandy and barren, insomuch that the caravans crosfing this country, to and from Negroland, are often reduced to great extremities. The inhabitants of this country are wild and ignorant. They have a number of petty princes, but for the most part, have few figns of any government at all. The Mahometan religion is professed throughout the country.
Ε Τ ΗΙ Ο Ρ Ι Α. I INDER the general name of Ethiopia is included all the remaining
part of Africa; containing an extent of 3600 miles from north to fouih, and 2000 from east to west. The air of this country is generally excessive hot, and the soil barren, though on the banks of the rivers it is fertile, and produces rice, citrons, lemons, sugar canes, &e. The Ethiopians are an ignorant, uncivilized, superstitious people. Their government is absolute, lodged in the hands of a great number of princes, the small ones are tributary to the greater. The Mahometan and Pagan religions prevail in Ethiopia.
black colour; and the downy softness of hair which grows upon the kin, gives a smoothness to it, resembling that of velvet. The hair of their heads is woolly, short and black; but their beards often turn grey, and sometimes white. Their noses are flat and short, their lips thick and tumid, and their tecth of an ivory whiteness,
The intellectual and moral powers of these wretched people are uncultivated ; and they are subject to the most barbarous despotism. The Savage tyrants who rule over them, make war upon each other for buman plunder! and the wretched victims, bartered for spiritous liquors, are tor from their families, their friends, and their native land, and consigned for life to misery, toil and bondage. But how am I shocked to inform you, that this infernal commerce is carried on by the humane, the polished, the christian inhabitants of Europe; nay even by Englishmen, whose ancestors have bled in the cause of liberty, and whose breatts ftill glow with the same generous fame! I cannot give you a more itriking proof of the ideas of horror which the captive negroes entertain of the ftate of servitude they are to undergo, than by relating the following incident from Dr. Goldfinith.
" A Guinea captain was, by distress of weather, driven into a certain harbour, with a lading of fickly flaves, who took every opportunity to throw themselves over-board, when brought upon deck for the benefit of fresh air. The captain perceiving, among others, a female flave attempting to drown herself, pitched upon her as a proper example for the rest. As he supposed that they did not know the terrors attending death, he ordered the woman to be tied with a rope under the arm-pits, and let down into the water. When the poor creature was thus plunged in, and about half way down, she was heard to give a terrible shriek, which at first was ascribed to her fears of drowning; but soon after, the water appeared red around her, she was drawn up, and it was found that a shark, which had followed the ship, had bitten her off from the middle'
The native inhabitants of America make a fifth race of men. They are of a copper colour, have black, thick, straight hair, fat noles, high cheek bones, and fmall eyes. They paint the body and face of various colours, and eradicate the hair of their beards and other parts, as a deformity. Their limbs are not so large and robur as those of the Europeans.
They endure hunger, thirit, and pain with aitonishing tirmness and patience; and, though cruel to their enemies, they are kind and just to each other.
The Europeans may be considered as the last variety of the human kied. They enjov fingular advantages froin the fairness of their complexions. The face of the African Black, or of the olive-coloured Afiatic, is a very imperfect index of the mind, and preserves the same settled thade in joy and sorrow, confidence and shame, anger and despair, fickness and health. The English are said to be of the fairelt of the Europeans; and we may therefore presume, that their countenances beit express the varialions of the paflions and vicillitudes of disease. But the intellectual and moral characteristics of the different nations, which compose this quarrer of the globe, are of inore importance to be knoun. There, however, become gradually less discernible, as fashion, learning, and commerce preyail more unii crlaily,'