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secured by seven locks, the keys of which are kept by the fame number of Hungarian noblemen. No prince is held by the populace as legally their sovereign, till he be crowned with the diadem of king Stephen; and they have a notion that the fate of their nation depends upon this crown's remaining in their poffeffion; it has therefore been always removed in times of danger, to places

of the greatest fafety Chief Torunis.] Presburg, in Upper Hungary, is the capital of the whole kingdom. It is well built on the Danube, and, like Vienna, has suburbs more magnificent than itself. In this city the states of Hungary hold their assemblies, and in the cathedral church the sovereign is crowned.

Hiftory.] This kingdom is the ancient Pannonia. Julius Cæfar was the firft Roman that attacked Hungary, and Tiberius fubdued it. The Goths afterwards took it ; and in the year 376, it became a prey to the Huns and Lombards. It was annexed to the empire of Germany under Charlemagne, but became an independent kingdom in 920. It was the seat of bloody wars between the Turks and Germans, from 1540 to 1739, when, by the treaty of Belgrade, it was ceded to the latter, and is now annexed to the German empire. Formerly it was an assemblage of different states, and Stephen was the first who assumed the title of king, in the year 997. He was distinguished with the appellation of SAINT, because he tirit introduced christianity into this country. The present fovereign is. Leopold II, who succeeded his brother, the late emperor, Joseph II.

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Boundaries.] B

north, by Denmark

and the Baltic ; eart, by Poland and Hungary ; fouth, by Switzerland and the Alps, which divide it from Italy; weft, by the dominions of France and the Low Countries, from which it is separated by the Rhine, Moselle, and the Meafe. Divifrons.) The German empire is divided into ten circles, viz. Circles. Population. Circles.

Population. Upper Saxony 3,700,000 Burgundy

1,880,000 Lower Saxony 2,100,000 Franconia

1,000,000 Westphalia


1,800,000 Upper Rhine


1,600,000 Lower Rhine 1,100,000 Austria,



Besides these ten circles there belong also to the German empite,

Population, The kingdom of Bohemia, divided into 16 circles

2,266,000 The Marquifate of Moravia, in 5 circles,

1,137,000 The Marquifate of Lusatia, (belonging to the elector of Saxony)

400,000 Silesia, (belonging to the Roman empire)

1,800,000, Prodnetioms and Commerce.] From the advantageous fituation and the great extent of Germany, from the various appearance of the foil, the number of its mountains, forelts and large rivers, we should be led to ex- , pect, what we actually find, a great variety and plenty of useful productions. The northern, and chiefly the north-eastern parts, furnish many forts of peltry, as fkins of foxes, bears, wolves, squirrels, lynxes, wild-cats, boars, &c.-The fouthern parts produce excellent wines and fruits; and the middle provinces great plenty of corn, cattle and minerals. Salt is found in Germany in greater abundance and purity than in most other countries.

If the Germans are inferior ta the English in the manufactures of cloth, hardware, and in the articles of luxury, it must be accounted for from the political situation of their country: The great number of princes, the variety of the forms of government, the different interests and mutual jea- , loufies of the petty ftates, operate as checks on the commerce and prosperity of the whole; and the difficulty of obtaining their concurrence in meafures of general utility, is frequently the cause, why there are so few canals and good roads, to facilitate travelling and inland trade.

Government.] The German empire, which till the year 843, was connected with France, now forms a state by itself, or may be considered as a combination of upwards of 300 fovereignties, independent of each other, but composing one political body under an elective head, called the Emperor of Germany, or the Roman Emperor. All other sovereigns allow him the first rank among the European monarchs. Eight princes of the empire, called Electors, have the right of electing the Emperor. The elec, tors are divided into ecclesiastical and temporal.

The King or Elector of Bohemia,

The Elector of the Palatine of Ba.
The Archbishop of Mentz,

The Archbishop of Treves The Elector of Saxony,
The Archbishop of Cologne. The Elector of Brandenburg,

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The Elector of Brunswick, (Hano

ver) Temporal. The emperor, upon his election, engages to protect the Romau Catholic religion and the Holy see. He is lord Paramount of the Roman emo pire, of whom the princes are supposed to hold their dominions in feeHe has power to asemble the Diet, over which he presides in person or by his commissary, and of ratifying their resolutions by his confirmation-He is fupreme judge--has power to confer titles of nobility—to establish poft offices thronghout the empire-to give charters to the universities, and to


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confer academical degrees. The Dict, which is composed of the empesor and of the immediate states of the empire, have power to levy taxes, give laws, make war, and conclude treaties of peace, by which the whole empire is bound. The states of the empire, which are differently constituted and governed, confidered in their separate capacity, enjoy sovereign power in their respective dominions, limited only by the above mentioncd laws.

Religion.] Since the year 1555, the Roman Catholic, the Lutheran, and the Calvinift, generally called the Reformed Religion, have been the established religions of Germany. The first prevails in the south of Germany, the Lutheran in the north, and the Reformed near the Rhine.

Capital. VIENNA, on the Danube is the capital of Auftria, and of the whole German empire ; and is the residence of the Emperor.

Improvements.] The Germans can boast of a greater number of useful discoveries and inventions in arts and sciences than any other European nation. They have the honor of inventing the art of printing, about the year 1450.

History, &c.] Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, king of France, was the founder of the German empire, in 800. Levopld II. the present emperor, was elected upon the death of his brother Joseph II.

The German empire, when considered as one single power or ftate, with the emperor at his head, is of no great political consequence in Europe ; because, from the inequality and weak connection of its parts, and the different nature of their government, from the insignificancy of its ill composed army, and above all from the different views and interests of its masters, it is next to impossible its force should be united, compact and uniform.

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Chief Towns, Limburg, belonging to the Dutch and Austrians,

Limburg Luxemburg, Austrian and French,

Luxemburg. Namur, middle parts belonging to Austria,

Namur. Hainault, Auftrian and French,

Mons. Cambrejis, subject to France,

Cambray, Artois, subject to France,

Arras. fludore belonging to the Dutch, Austrians and 1

Ghent, Flanders, French

1 Oftend. · Inhabitants and religion.] The Netherlands are inhabited by about 1,500,000 fouls. The Roman Catholic is the established religion, but Proteitants and Jews are not molested.

Manufactures.] Their principal manufactures are, fine lawns, cambricks, lace and tapestry, with which they carry on a very advantageous traffic, especially with England, from whence, it is computed, they receive a balance of half a million annually in time of peace.

Chief towns.] Brussels is the chief town of Brabant and the capital of Flanders. Here the best camblets are made, and most of the fine laces, which are worn in every part of the world.

Antwerp, once the emporium of the European continent, is now reduced to be a tapestry and thread-lace shop. One of the first exploits of the Dutch, foon after they shook off the Spanish yoke, was to ruin at once the commerce of Antwerp, by sinking vellels loaded with stone in the mouth of the river Scheldt: thus shutting up the entrance of that river to Tips of burden. This was the more cruel, as the people of Antwerp had been their friends and fellow sufferers in the cause of liberty.

History.] Flanders, originally the country of the ancient Belgæ, was conquered by Julius Cæsar forty-seven years before Chrift; passed into the hands of France A. D. 412 ; and was governed by its earls, subject to that crown, from 864 to 1369. By marriage it then came into the house of Austria ; but was yielded to Spain in 1556. Shook off the Spanish yoke 1572, and in the year 1725, by the treaty of Vienna, was annexed to the German empire.

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Divided into seven provinces.
Provinces. Chief Towns. Inhab. Provinces. Chief Towns
Nimeguen, 12,000.

Friesland. Leuwarden.
Holland, Amsterdam, 212,000. Overyffel, Deventer.

30,000. Groenigen, Groenigen. Zeeland, Middleburgh,

24,000. Country of Drenthe, under the protection of the United Provinces. Lands of the Generality, commonly called Dutch Brabant.

Wealth and Commerce.] The seven United Provinces afford a Atriking proof, that unwearied and perfevering industry is capable of conquering every disadvantage of climate and situation. The air and water are bad; the soil naturally produces scarcely any thing but turf; and the poffeffion of this foil, poor as it is, is disputed by the ocean, which, rising considerably above the level of the land, can only be prevented by ftrong and expenfive dykes, from overflowing a spot which seems to be stolen from its natural do. mains. Notwithstanding these difficulties, which might seem informountable to a lefs induftrious people, the persevering labours of the patient Dutchmen have rendered this small, and seemingly insignificant territory, one of the richest spots in Europe, both with respect to population and property. In other countries, which are possessed of a variety of natural productions, we are not surprized to find manufactures employed in multiplying the riches which the bounty of the soil bestows. But to fee, in a country like Holland, large woollen manufactures, where there are fcarcely any flocks; numberless artists employed in metals, where there is no mine; thousands of saw-mills, where there is scarcely any forest; an immense quantity of corn exported from a country where there is not agriculture enough to support one half of its inhabitants, must strike every observer with admiration. Among the moft valuable productions of this country may be reckoned their excellent cattle. They export large quantities of madder, a vegetable much used in dying. Their fisheries yield a clear profie of many millions of florins. The trade of Holland extends to almost every part of the world, to the exclusion, in fomc branches, of all their European competitors.

Capital.] AMSTERDAM, which is built on piles of wood, and is one of the moft commercial cities in the world. It has more than one half the trade of Holland ; and, in this celebrated centre of an immense commerce, a bank is established of that species, called a Giro bank, of very great wealth and greater credit.

Government.] Since the great confederation of Utrecht, made in the year 1579, the Seven United Provinces must be looked upon as one political body, united for the preservation of the whole, of which each single province is governed by its own laws, and exercises most of the rights of a sovereign state. In consequence of the union, the Seven Provinces guarantee each others rights, they make war and peace, they levy taxes, &c. in their joint capacity; but as to internal government, each province is independant of the other provinces, and of the supreme power of the republic. The provinees rank in the order they are mentioned. They fend deputies, chosen out of the provincial states, to the general assembly,


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