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The country is very thinly inhabited, by a people resembling the Lap landers, and the other nations in the north-western parts of Europe, from whence their ancestors probably migrated,

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Boundaries.] BOF S. Dax Penice rourm, by Nova Scotia and the United States; west, by unknown lands.

Rivers.] The principal are, the Outtauais, St. John's Seguina, Def. prairies and Trois Rivieres, which are large, bold and deep, and are all (wallowed up by the river St. Lawrence, which falls into the ocean at Cape Rosieres, by a mouth ninety miles broad.

Chief Towns. QUEBEC is the capital of Canada. It is built on the bank of St. Lawrence river, on a rock, in two divisions, 320 miles from the fea, and contained in 1784, 6,472 inhabitants. One hundred and seventy miles from Quebec, as you afcend the St. Lawrence, ftands MONT. REAL, on a beautiful island in the river. It is nearly as large'as Quebec.

Population, ] In 1784, a census of the inhabitants of the province of Quebec was taken, by order of General Haldimand, when they amounted to 113,012 English and French, exclusive of the Loyalists, who have lately settled in the upper parts of the province, to the number, it is faid, of 10,000.

Constitution.] The constitution of the province is founded on the 14th of George the IIId, called the Quebec Bill. By this bill the legislative power is vested in the governor and legislative council. The council is composed of the lieutenant-governor, chief justice and secretary for the time being, and twenty other members, nearly one half of whom are French. They are appointed by the crown, and receive 6.100 a year as a falary. Their power extends to almost all the necessary purposes of government, except the levying of taxes, wherein the said statute inHibits, whereby Great Britain pays the salaries to the counsellors, and all the expences of the civil lift of the province, which amount to £.25,000 per annum, exclufive of the governor-general's salary.

Trade.] The amount of the exports from the province of Quebec in the year 1786, was £•343,262 : 19:6. The amount of imports in the fame year was £.325,116. The exports consisted of wheat, flour, bilcpit, flax-feed, lumber of various kinds, fish, pot-ath, oil, ginseng and


other medicinal roots, but principally of furs and peltries, to the amount of £. 285,977. The imports confifted of rum, brandy, molasses, coffee, fugar, wines, tobacco, falt, chocolate, provisions for the troops and dry goods.

Hiffory.} This country was discovered by the English, as early as about 1497, and settled by the French in 1608, who kept possession of it till 1763, when, after a long and bloody war, it fell into the hands of the British, to whom it has ever since belonged,

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Length 350


§ 439 and 49° North Latitude, Breadth 250

1609 and 670 Welt Longitude from London, Boundaries.] BOUNDED well, by the eastern boundary of the United

States; north, by the river St. Lawrence; east and south, by the Gulph of St. Lawrence and the Atlantic Ocean. It has about 90 leagues of fea coast, on the Atlantic Ocean. In 1784, this province was divided into two governments. One of the governments is called New Brunswick, and lies bordering on the United States.

Rivers and Bays.] The rivers Rifgouche and Nipisiguit run from west to eaft, and fall into the Bay of St. Lawrence. St. John's, Passamagnadi, and St. Croix, run from north to fouth into the Bay of Fundy, or the sea. Nova Scotia is indented with numerous bays, which afford many commodious, bold harbours. The Bay of Fundy is the largest of the bays, and extends 50 leagues into the country. Here the ebb and flow of the tide is from 45 to 60 feet.

Climate, Soil, Produétions and Trade.] During a great part of the year the atmosphere is clouded with thick fog, which renders it unhealthy for the inhabitants; and four or five months it is intensely cold. A great part of this country lies in forest, and the foil, in most parts, is thin and barren. On the banks of the rivers, and some other parts, the soil is good; many of the bays, and salt water rivers, and some parts of the sea coast, are bordered with tracts of salt marsh. The inhabitants do not raise provision enough for home consumption. They sublift principally by the lumber trade, which is fupplied by their forests; and by the fishery, which is very profitable, The filhery on the sea cost of the island of Cape Breton, in the year 1743, while in poffeffion of the French, yielded 1,149,000 quintals of dried fish, and 3,900,000 quintals of mud fish ; the value of both, including 3116 tons of train oil, was estimated at 1.926,577:10 ferling. Five hundred and fixty-four ships, besides shallops, and 27,000 seamen, were employed in this trade.

Chief Towns.] HALIFAX is the capital of Nova Scotia, and ftands on Chebućio Bay. It has a good harbour, fufficiently large and safe to


facfter a squadron of thips through the winter. The town has an en. trenchment, and is strengthened with forts of timber. It is commodiousky ftuated for the fishery. ANNAPOLIS stands on the east side of the Bay of Fundy, and has one of the finest harbours in the world. St. John's is a new settlement at the mouth of the river of the same name, Since the conclusion of the war, there have been large emigrations of the refu.. gees from the United States to this province. They have built several siew towns, the largest of which is SHELBURNE, which is said to contain gooo inhabitants.

History and Government.] Notwithstanding the forbidding aspeet of this country, it was here that some of the firit European settlements were Jikade. The first grant of land in it, was made by James 1, to his secretary William Alexander, who named it Nova Scotia, or New Scotland.Since that time it has frequently changed from one private proprietor to another, and repeatedly from the French to the English. Ai the peace of Utrecht is was confirmed to the English, under whose government it has ever since continued,



Miles. Length 600

250 and 31° North Latitude. Breadth 130 Between { 5 and 17° West Longitude from Philadel

phia. Boundaries.] BOUNDED north, by Georgia; calt, by the Atlantic

Ocean ; South by the Gulph of Mexico; west by the Millisippi: lying in the form of an L.

Rivers.) St. John's and Indian rivers, which empty into the Atlantic Ocean; Seguana, Apalachicola, Chatahatchi, Escambia, Mobile, Pascagoula and Pearl rivers, all of which rise in Georgia, and fun southerly in, to the Gulph of Mexico.

Climate.) Very little different from that of Georgia.

Soil and Productions.] There are, in this country, a great variety of foils.--The eastern part of it, near and about St. Augustine, is far the most unfruitful; yet even here two crops of Indian corn a year are produced. The banks of the rivers which water the Floridas, and the parts contiguous, are of a superior quality, and well adapted to the culture of rice and corn, while the more interior country, which is high and pleafant, abounds with wood of almost every kind; particularly white and sed oak, pine, hiccory, cypress, red and white cedar. The intervals beIween the hilly part of this country are extremely rich, and produce fpon,


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taneously the fruits and vegetables that are common to Georgia and the the Carolinas. But this country is rendered valuable in a peculiar manner, by the extensive ranges for cattle.

Chief Towns.] Sr. AUGUSTINE, the capital of E. Florida, is situated on the sea coast-is of an oblong figure, and interfected by four streets, which cut each other at right angles. The town is fortified with bastions, and enclosed with a ditch. It is likewise defended by a castle, called Fort St. John, which is well appointed as to ordnance. The north and south breakers, at the entrance of the harbour, form two channels, whose bars have eight feet water.

The principal town in West Florida is PENSACOLA. It lies along the beach, and, like St. Augustine, is of an oblong form.—The water-ap

proach to the towni, except for small vessels, is obstructed by a low and landy shore. The bay, however, on which the town stands, forms a very commodious harbour, and vessels may ride here fecure from every

wind, Hiftory.) The Floridas have experienced the vicissitudes of war, and frequently changed masters, belonging alternately to the French and Spaniards. It was ceded by the latter to the English at the peace of 1763, During the last war it was again reduced by the arms of his Catholic Majefty, and was guaranteed to the crown of Spain by the late definitive creaty. Its first discoverer was Sebastian Cabot, in 1497.



which are

Boundaries.] BOUNDED by the Minifippi eaft ; by the Gulph of

Mexico fouth ; by New Mexico weft; and runs indefinitely north.

Rivers.] It is intersected by a number of fine rivers, among the Natchitoches, which empties into the Mislisippi in Point Coupee, and the Adayes or Mexicano river, emptying into the Gulph of Mexico.

Capital.] New ORLEANS. Ii itands on the east lide' of the Missisippi, 105 miles from its mouth, in latitude 30° 2' north. In the beginning of the last year it contained about 1100 houses, seven-eighths of which were consumed by fire, in the space of five hours, on the 19th of March, 1788. It is now fast rebuilding. Its advantages for trade are very great. Situated on a noble river, in a fertile and healthy country, within two weeks fail of Mexico by fea, and still nearer to the British, French and Spanish West-India islands, with a moral certainty of its becoming the general receptacle for the produce of that extensive and valuable country on the Missisippi and Ohio, are sufficient to ensure its future growth and commercial importance.

Religion, &c.] The greater part of the white inhabitants are Roman Catholics. They are governed by a viceroy from Spain, and their number is unknown.

Climate, Soil and Produce.] Louisiana is agreeably situated between the extremes of heat and cold. les climate varies as it extends towards the north. The southern parts, lying within the reach of the refreshing


breezes from the sea, are not fcorched like those under the fame latitudes in Africa; and its northern regions are colder than those of Europe undei the same parallels, with a wholesome serene air. To judge of the produce to be expected from the soil of Louisiana, let us turn out eyes to Egypt, Arabia Felix, Persia, India, China and Japan, all lying in correfponding latitudes. Of these, China alone has a tolerable government ; and yet it must be acknowledged they all are, or have been, famous for their riches and fertility. From the favourableness of the climate, two annual crops of Indian corn, as well as rice, may be produced ; and the foil, with little cultivation, would furnish grain of every kind in the greatest abundance. Their timber is as fine as any in the world, and the quantities of live oak, afh, mulberry, walnut, cherry, cypress and cedat, are astonishing. The neighbourhood of the Milimppi, besides, furnishes the richest fruits in great variety; the soil is particularly adapted for hemp, flax and tobacco; and indigo is at this time a staple commodity, which commonly yields the planter three or four cuttings a year. In a word, whatever is rich and rare in the most desirable climates in Europe, seems to be the spontaneous production of this delightful country. The Mislilippi furnishes in great plenty several sorts of fish, particularly perch, pike, Iturgeon and eels.

Hiftory. ] The Misfilippi, on which the fine country of Louisiana is fituated, was first discovered by Ferdinand de Soto, in 1541. Monsieur de la Salle was the first who traversed it. He, in the year 1682, having passed down to the mouth of the Mississippi, and surveyed the adjacent country, returned to Canada, from whence he took passage to France.

From the flattering accounts which he gave of the country, and the consequential advantages that would accrue from settling a colony in those parts, Louis XIV. was induced to establish a company for the purpose. Accordingly a squadron of four vessels, amply provided with men and provisions, under the command of Monsieur de la Salle, embarked, with an intention to fetele near the mouths of the Miliffippi. But he unintentionally failed :00 leagues to the westward of it, where he attempted to establish a colony ; but, through the unfavourableness of the climate, most of his men miserably perished, and he himself was villainously murdered, not long after, by two of his own men. Monsieur lbberville succeeded him in his laudable attempts. He, after two successful voyages, died while preparing for a third. Crozat succeeded him; and in 1762, the king gave him Louisiana. This grant continued but a short time after the death of Louis XIV. In 1763 Louiliana was ceded to the king of Spain, to whom it now belongs.


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