« הקודםהמשך »
both to Spain and the L'nited States. It may prevent jealoufiercolessen national prejudices-promote religious toleration, preserve harmony, and be a medium of trade reciprocally advantageous.
Besides, it is well known that empire has been travelling from east to west. Probably her last and broadeft feat will be America. Here the sciences, and the arts of civilized life, are to receive their highest improve
Here civil and religious liberty are to flourish, unchecked by the cruel hand of civil or ecclefiaftical tyranny. Here genius, aided by all the improvements of former ages, is to be exerted in humanizing mankind-in expanding and enriching their minds with religious and philofophical knowledge, and in planning and executing a form of government, which shall involve all the excellencies of former governments, with as few of their defects as is consistent with the imperfection of human affairs, and which shall be calculated to protect and unite, in a manner consistent with the natural rights of mankind, the largest empire that ever existed, Elevated with these prospects, which are not merely the visions of fancy, we cannot but anticipate the period, as not far distant, when the AMERICAN EMPIRE will comprehend millions of souls, west of the Missisippi. Judging upon probable grounds, the Misisippi was never designed as the western boundary of the American empire. The God of nature never intended that some of the best part of his earth should be inhabited by the subjects of a monarch 4000 miles from them. And may we nct venture to predict, that, when the rights of mankind shall be more fully known, and the knowledge of them is faft increasing both in Europe and America, the power of European potentates will be confined to Europe, and their present American dominions, become like the United States, free, fovereign, and independent empires.
SITUATION and EXTENT.
42° 50' and 45° North Latitude.
1° 30' and 3° East Longitude. Boundaries.] BOUNDED north, by Canada ; eaft, by Connecticut
river, which divides it from New Hampshire ; fouth, by Massachusetts; west, by New-York. Civil divifions.] Vermont is divided into the seven following counties:
Counties, Chief Towns. Counties. Chief Town, Bennington, BENNINGTON.
These counties are divided into townships, which are generally fix miles square. In every township is a reserve of two rights of land, of 350 acres each ; one to be appropriated for the support of public schools, the other to be given in fee to the first minister who settles in the township. A part of the townships were granted by the governor of NewHampshire, and the other part by that of Vermont. In those townships granted by the former, a right of land is reserved for the support of the gospel in foreign parts; in those granted by the latter, a college right, and a right for the support of county grammar schools, are reserved. In these reservations, liberal provision is made for the support of the gospel, and for the promotion of common and collegiate education,
Rivers.] * This state, on the east side of the mountain, is watered by Paupanhoofak, Quechey, Welds, White, Black and Weit rivers, which run from west to eart into Connecticut river; and west of the mountains, by the river Lamoil, over which is a natural stone bridge, seven or eight rods in length, by Onion river and Otter Creek, which empty by one mouth into Lake Champlain, 20 or 30 miles south of St. John's. Otter Creek is navigable for boats 50 miles. The lands adjacent are of an excellent quality, and are annually enriched by the overflowing of the water, occafioned by the melting of the snow on the Green Mountains.
Mountains.] A chain of high mountains, running north and south, diriden this state nearly in the center between Connecticut river and Lake Champlain. The height of land is generally from 20 to 30 miles from the river, and about the same distance from the New-York line. The natural growth upon this mountain is hemlock, pine, spruce, and other evergreens; hence it has always a green appearance, and on this account has obtained the descriptive name of Ver Mans, Green Mountain. On some high parts of this mountain, snow lies till May, and sometimes till June.
Face of the country, foil and productions.] The country is generally hilly, but not rocky. It is finely watered, and affords the best of pasturage for cattle. On the banks of the lakes, rivers and rivulets, are many fine tracts of rich interval land. The heavy growth of timber, which is common throughout the state, evince the itrength and fertility of the soil. Elm, black birch, maple, afh and bass-wood, grow in the moist low ground; and the banks of the rivers are timbered principally with white pine, intermingled with vales of beech, elm and white oak. The inhabitants cultivate wheat, 25 and 30 bushels of which grow on an acre, rye, barley, oats, Indian corn, &c. The corn, however, is frequently cut off by the early froits, especially on the mountains and hills. That which grows on the banks of the rivers is not so frequently injured. Flax is railed in considerable quantities, and the soil is good for hemp. Potatoes, pumpkins, and garden roots and vegetables, grow here in great plenty. Large quantities of sugar, of a good quality and flavour, are made from the sugar maple.
Climate.] None in the world more healthy. Snow begins to fall commonly in the beginning of November, and is generally gone by the middle of April. During this season, the inhabitants generally enjoy a serene sky, and a keen cold air. The ground is feldom frozen to any great depth, being covered with a great body of snow, before the severe
frosts begin. In the fpring, the fnow, in common, is gradually dissolved by the warm influences of the fun. In this way the earth is enriched and moistened, and spring advances with surprizing quickness.
Militia, population and character.] There are upwards of 17,000 men upon the militia rolls of this state. These confißt of two divifions, one on the west, the other on the east side of the mountain. In these two divisions are 7, brigades, which are made up of 21 regiments. From the pumber of militia, reckoning 5 for one, we may estimate the number of inhabitants iu the state at 85,000. Others, who reckon 6 for one, estimate them at 100,000. The bulk of the inhabitants are emigrants from Connecticut and Massachusetts, and their descendents. There is one fettlement of Scotch people, which are almost the only foreigners in the ftate. As to the character, the manners, the cuftoms, the laws, the policy and the religion of the people in Vermont, it is sufficient to say they are New Englandmen.
Curiofities. In the township of Tinmouth, of the fide of a small hill, is a very curious cave. The chasm, at its entrance, is about four feet in circumference. Entering this you descend 104 feet, and then opens a (pacious room 20 feet in breadth and 100 feet in length. The angle of descent is about 45 degrees. The roof of this cavern is of rock, through which the water is continually percolating. The Atalactites which hang from the roof appear like içicles on the eves of houses, and are continually increasing in number and magnitude. The bottom and fides are daily incrufting with spar aud other mineral substances. On the sides of this subterraneous hall, are tables, chairs, benches, &c. which appear to have been artificially carved. This richly ornamented room, when illuminated with the candles of the guides, has an enchanting effect upon the eye of the spectator, If we might be indulged in assigning the general cause of these astonishing appearances, we should conclude from the various circumstances accompanying them, that they arise from water filtrating flowly through the incumbent Strata; and taking up in its passage a variety of mineral subftances, and becoming thus faturated with metallic particles, gradually exuding on the surface of the caverns and fiffures, in a quiescent state, the aqueous particles evaporate, and leave the mineral substances to unite according to their affinities
. At the end of this cave is a circular hole, 15 feet deep, apparently hewn out, in a conical forn, enlarging gradually as you descend, in the form of a sugar loaf. At the bottom is a spring of fresh water, in continual motion, like the boiling of a por. Its depth has never been founded.
Conftitutian, ] The inhabitants of Vermont, by their representatives in convention, at Windsor, on the 25th of December, 1777, declared that the territory called Vermont, was, and of right ought to be a free and independent ftate; and for the purpose of maintaining regular government in the fame, they made a folemn declaration of their rights, and ratified a conftitution, of which the following is an abstract.
Their declaration, which makes a part of their constitution, asserts that all men are born equally free-with equal rights, and ought to enjoy liberty of conscience-freedom of the press-trial by jury-power to form new states in vacant countries, and to regulate their own internal
police--that all elections ought to be free-that all power is originally in the people--that government ought to be instituted for the common benefit of the community—and that the community have a right to reform or abolish government—that every member of society hath a right to protection of life, liberty and property—and in return is bound to contribute his proportion of the expence of that protection, and yield his personal service when neceffary—that he shall not be obliged to give evidence against himself that the people have a right to bear arms—but no standing armies shall be maintained in time of peace--that the people have a right to hold themselves, their houses, papers, and possessions free from search or seizure--and therefore warrants without oaths first made, affording sufficient foundation for them, are contrary to that right and ought not to be granted that no person shall be liable to be transported out of this state for trial for any offence committed within this state, &c.
By the frame of government, the supreme legislative power is vested in a house of representatives of the freemen of the state of Vermont, to be chofen annually by the freemen on the first Tuesday in September, and to meet the second Thursday of the succeeding October—this body is vested with all the powers necessary for the legislature of a free ftatetwo thirds of the whole number of representatives elected, make a quorum.
Each inhabited town throughout the state, has a right to send one representative to the assembly.
The supreme executive power is vested in a governor, lieutenant-governor, and twelve counsellors to be chosen annually in the fame manner, and vefted with the same powers as in Connecticut.
Every person of the age of 21 years, who has resided in the state one whole year next before the election of representatives, and is of a quiet, peaceable behaviour, and will bind himself by his oath, to do what he Thall in conscience judge to be most conducive to the best good of the ftate, shall be entitled to all the privileges of a freemen of this state.
Each member of the house of representatives before he takes his seat, must declare his belief in one God-in future rewards and punishments, and in the divinity of the scriptures of the Old and New Testament, and must profess the protestant religion.
Courts of justice are to be established in every county throughout the ftate.
The fupreme court, and the several courts of common pleas of this ftate, besides the powers usually exercised by such courts, have the powers of a court of chancery, so far as relates to perpetuating testimony, obtaining evidence from places not within the state, and the care of the persons and estates of those who are non compotes mentis, &c. All prosecutions are to be commenced in the name, and by the authority of the freemen of the state of Vermont. The legislature are to regulate entails so as to prevent perpetuities.
All field and staff officers, and commissioned officers of the army, and all general officers of the militia, shall be chosen by the general assembly, and be commissioned by the governor.
Every seventh year, beginning with the year 1785, thirteen persons (none of whom are to be of the council or assembly) Thall be chosen by the freemen, and be called the council of censors, whose duty it shall be to enquire whether the conftitution has been preserved inviolate in every part-whether the legislative and executive powers have been properly exercised-taxes justly laid and collected—the public monies rightly disposed of -and the laws duly executed.–For these purposes, they shall have power to send for persons, papers, &c.-to pass public censures--to order impeachments, and to recommend the repeal of all laws enacted contrary to the principles of the constitution. They are to be vested with these powers for one year only, after the day of their election.
The council of censors, when necessary, may call a convention, to mect within two years after their fitting-to alter the constitution—the proposed alterations to be published at least six months before the election of delegates to such convention.
Chief town.) BENNINGTON is the principal town in Vermont. It is fituated in the south-west corner of the state; near the foot of the Green Mountain. Its public buildings are a church for Congregationalists, a court-house and gaol. It has a number of elegant houses, and is a fiourishing town. Near the center of the town is Mount Anthony, which rifes very high in the form of a sugar-loaf. The assembly commonly hold their sessions at Windsor,
** For the new discoveries on the north-west coast of America, fee the Voy,
ages of Captains Portlock and Dixon. +++ For the discoveries in the South Seas, see the History of New Holland,
with an introductory Preface on Banishment, by the Right Hon. Lord
Voyage to Botany Bay, which includes several new discoveries.
The above Books printed for J. STOCKDALE.
British American Dominions.
N E W BR I TA I N.
NDER this name is comprehended all the tract of country, which cluding Labrador, pow North and South Wales; said to be 850 miles
broad. to speak generally, this is a mountainous, frozen, barren country, abounding with lakes, rivers and bays, that furnish plenty of filh. The fur of the various animals is close, soft and warm. The fishery and the fur trade are the only things which render this country valuable, This trade is in the hands of a company of nine or ten persons, who re. ceived a charter in 1670, and whose profits are not inconsiderable. One year they carried from Great Britain, articles to the amount of £.16,060; and in return, carried furs and fish to the amount of £.29,380.