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both to Spain and the United States. It may prevent jealoufiecclefsen national prejudices-promote religious toleration, preserve harmony, and be a medium of trade reciprocally advantageous.
Besides, it is well known that empire has been travelling from east to west. Probably her last and broadeft seat will be America. Here the sciences, and the arts of civilized life, are to receive their highest improvement. Here civil and religious liberty are to flourish, unchecked by the cruel hand of civil or ecclefiaftical tyranny. Here genius, aided by all the improvements of former ages, is to be exerted in humanizing man. kind-in expanding and enriching their minds with religious and philofophical knowledge, and in planning and executing a form of government, which shall involve all the excellencies of former governments, with as few of their defects as is consistent with the imperfection of human affairs, and which shall be calculated to protect and unite, in a manner confiftene with the natural rights of mankind, the largest empire that ever exifted, Elevated with these prospects, which are not merely the visions of fancy, we cannot but anticipate the period, as not far distant, when the AMERICAN EMPIRE will comprehend millions of souls, west of the MisisipPi. Judging upon probable grounds, the Misisippi was never designed as the western boundary of the American empire. The God of nature never intended that some of the best part of his earth should be inhabited by the subjects of a monarch 4000 miles from them. And may we nct venture to predict, that, when the rights of mankind shall be more fully known, and the knowledge of them is fast increasing both in Europe and America, the power of European potentates will be confined to Europe, and their present American dominions, become like the United States, free, sovereign, and independent empires.
Thele counties are divided into townships, which are generally fix miles square. In every township is a reserve of two rights of land, of 350 acres each; one to be appropriated for the support of public schools, the other to be given in fee to the first minister who settles in the townThip. A part of the townships were granted by the governor of NewHampshire, and the other part by that of Vermont. În those townships granted by the former, a right of land is reserved for the support of the gospel in foreign parts ; in those granted by the latter, à college right, and a right for the support of county grammar schools, are referved. In these relervations, liberal provision is made for the support of the gospel, and for the promotion of common and collegiate education,
Rivers. 1° This state, on the eaft side of the mountain, is watered by Paupanhoosak, Quechey, Welds, White, Black and West rivers, which run from west to east into Connecticut river; and west of the mountains, by the river Lamoil, over which is a natural stone bridge, seven or eight rods in length, by Onion river and Otter Creek, which empty by one mouth into Lake Champlain, 20 or 30 miles south of St. John's. Otter Creek is navigable for boats 50 miles. The lands adjacent are of an ex: cellent quality, and are annually enriched by the overflowing of the water, occasioned by the melting of the snow on the Green Mountains.
Mountains.] A chain of high mountains, running north and south, divides this state nearly in the center between Connecticut river and Lake Champlain. The height of land is generally from 20 to 30 miles from the river, and about the same distance from the New-York line. The na. tural growth upon this mountain is hemlock, pine, spruce, and other evergreens; hence it has always a green appearance, and on this account has obtained the descriptive name of Ver Mans, Green Mountain. On some high parts of this mountain, snow lies till May, and sometimes till June.
Face of the country, foil and productions. The country is generally hilly, but not rocky. It is finely watered, and affords the best of pasturage for cattle. On the banks of the lakes, rivers and rivulets, are many fine tracts of rich interval land. The heavy growth of timber, which is common throughout the state, evince the strength and fertility of the soil. Elm, black birch, maple, ash and bass-wood, grow in the moist low ground; and the banks of the rivers are timbered principally with white pine, intermingled with vales of beech, elm and white oak. The inhabitants cultivate wheat, 25 and 30 buffels of which grow on an acre, rye, barley, oats, Indian corn, &c. The corn, however, is frequently cut off by the early froits, especially on the mountains and hills. That which grows on the banks of the rivers is not so frequently injured. Flax is raised in considerable quantitics, and the soil is good for hemp. Potatoes, pumpkins, and garden roots and vegetables, grow here in great plenty. Large quantities of sugar, of a good quality and flavour, are made from the sugar maple.
Climate.] None in the world more healthy. Snow begins to fall commonly in the beginning of November, and is generally gone by the middle of April. During this season, the inhabitants generally enjoy a serene sky, and a keen cold air. The ground is seldom frozen to any great depth, being covered with a great body of snow, before the ferere
frosts frosts begin. In the fpring, the fnow, in common, is gradually diffolved by the warm influences of the fun. In this way the earth is enriched and moistened, and spring advances with surprizing quickness.
Militia, population and chara&er.] There are upwards of 17,000 men upon the militia rolls of this state. These confiff of two divifions, one on the wed, the other on the east side of the mountain. In thele two divisions are 7 brigades, which are made up of 21 regiments. From the number of militia, reckoning 5 for one, we may estimate the number of inhabitants iu the ftate at 85,000. Others, who reckon 6 for one, efti. mate them at 100,000. The bulk of the inhabitants are emigrants from Connecticut and Massachusetts, and their descendents. There is one fecclement of Scotch people, which are almost the only foreigners in the ftate. As to the character, the manners, the customs, the laws, the poli. cy and the religion of the people in Vermont, it is sufficient to say they are New Englandmen.
Curiosities. In the township of Tinmouth, of the fide of a small hill, is a very curious cave. The chasm, at its entrance, is about four feet in circumference. Entering this you descend 104 feet, and then opens a Spacious room 20 feet in breadth and 100 feet in length. The angle of descent is about 45 degrees. The roof of this cavern is of rock, through which the water is continually percolating. The Atalactites which hang from the roof appear like içicles on the eves of houses, and are continually increasing in number and magnitude. The bottom and sides are daily incrusting with spar aud other mineral substances. On the sides of this subterraneous hall, are tables, chairs, benches, &c. which appear to have been artificially carved. This richly ornamented room, when illuminated with the candles of the guides, has an enchanting effect upon the eye of the spectator, If we might be indulged in assigning the general cause of these astonishing appearances, we should conclude from the various circumstances accompanying them, that they arise from water filtrating flowly through the incumbent strata ; and taking up in its passage a variety of mineral subftances, and becoming thus saturated with me tallic particles, gradually exuding on the surface of the caverns and fifsures, in a quiescent ftate, the aqueous particles evaporate, and leave the mineral subftances to unite according to their affinities. * At the end of this cave is a circular hole, 15 feet deep, apparently hewn out, in a conical form, enlarging gradually as you descend, in the form of a sugar loaf. At the bottom is a spring of fresh water, in continual motion, like the boiling of a pot. Its depth has never been founded.
Conftitutign,] The inhabitants of Vermont, by their representatives in convention, at Windsor, on the 25th of December, 1777, declared that the territory called Vermont, was, and of right ought to be a free and independent state ; and for the purpose of maintaining regular government in the same, they made a folemn declaration of their rights, and ratified a constitution, of which the following is an abftract. • Their declaration, which makes a part of their constitution, asserts that all men are born equally free--with equal rights, and ought to enjoy liberty of conscience-freedom of the press-trial by jury-power to form new states in vacant countries, and to regulate their own internal
British American Dominions.
TINDER this name is comprehended all the tract of country, which
U lies north of Canada, commonly called the Ekimaux country, in. cluding Labrador, now North and South Wales; said to be 850 miles long, and 750 broad.
Io speak generally, this is a mountainous, frozen, barren country, abounding with lakes, rivers and bays, that furnish plenty of fish,
The fur of the various animals is close, soft and warm. The fishery and the fur trade are the only things which render this country valuable, This trade is in the hands of a company of nine or ten persons, who re. ceived a charter in 1670, and whose profits are not inconsiderable. One year they carried from Great-Britain, articles to the amount of £.16,060; and in return, carried furs and fish to the amount of 6.29,380..