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garrisoned with one company. The excellent construction and execution of this work reflects honor on the abilities and industry of Captain Hart, who garrisons it with his company, and who was his own engineer.
This post was established for the purpose of defending the frontiers of Pennsylvania, which are much exposed by the facility with which the Indians can cross from Lake Erie, either to French creek or the Jadagghue Lake and the Conneawango branch, and thence descend the rapid river Allegany.
Fort Pitt-Has only an officer, and a few men to receive the fupplies and dispatches forwarded to the troops by the Secretary at War.
Fort M'INTOSH_Is ordered to be demolished, and a block-house to be erected in lieu thereof, a few miles up the Big Beaver creek to protect the communication up the same, and also to cover the country.
Forr HARMAR--At the mouth of Mukingum, is a well constructed fort, with five bastions, and three cannons mounted.
It is at present garrisoned with four companies, and is considered as head quarters, being conveniently fituated to reinforce any of the posts either up or down the river Ohio.
Fort STEUBEN-At the rapids of the Ohio, on the west side is a wellconstructed small fort, with one cannon, and is garrisoned with a major and two companies. This post is established to cover the country from the incursions of the Indians, and it also serves as a post of communication to Poft Vincennes on the Wabash.
Post VINCENNES--On the Wabash, is a work erected during the year 1787, and has four small brass cannon. It is garrisoned by a major and two companies.
It is established to curb the incursions of the Wabash Indians into Kentucky country, and to prevent the usurpation of the federal lands, the fertility of which have been too strong a temptation to the lawless people of the frontiers, who posted themselves there in force in the year 1786. Bri. gadier-General Harmar, by order of Congress, formed an expedition in Auguft, 1787, for the purpose of disposfelling them; but previous to his arrival, most of the intruders had abandoned their settlement.
Government, &c.] By an ordinance of Congress, passed on the 13th of July, 1787, this country, for the purposes of temporary government, was erected into one district, subject, however, to a division, when circumftances shall make it expedient.
In the same ordinance it is provided, that Congress shall appoint a governor, whose commission shall continue in force three years, unless sooner revoked.
The governor must refide in the diftrict, and have a freehold estate therein, in 1000 acres of land, while in the exercise of his office.
Congress, from time to time, are to appoint a secretary, to continue in office four years, unless sooner removed, who must reside in the difuict, and have an estate of 500 acres of land, while in office.
The business of the secretary is, to keep and preserve the acts and laws of the legislature, and the public records of the diftrict, and the proceedings of the governor, in his executive department; and to transmit authentic copies of such acts and proceedings, every six months, to the secretary of Congress. 2
The ordinance provides that Congress shall appoint three judges, pof: fessed each of 500 acres of land in the district in which they are to reside, and to hold their commissions during good behaviour, any two of whom, Tall form a court, who shall have a common law jurisdiction. The go. vernor and judges are authorized to adopt and publish in the district, such laws of the original states, criminal and civil, as may be necessary and best suited to .the circumstances of the district, and report them to Congress, and if approved they fhall continue in force, till the organization of the general allembly of the district, who shall have authority to alter them. The governor is to command the militia, and appoint and commission their officers, except general officers, who are to be appointed and commissioned by Congress. · Previous to the organization of the assembly, the governor is to appoint such magiftrates and civil officers, as shall be deemed necessary for the preservation of peace and order.
So soon as there shall be 5000 free male inhabitants of full age, in the district, they shall receive authority to elect representatives, one for every 500 free male inhabitants, to represent them in the general assembly; the representation to encrease progrefsively with the number of free male inbabitants, till there be 2, representatives; after which the number and proportion of the representatives shall be regulated by the legislature. A representative must possess, in fee fimple, 200 acres of land, and be a refident in the district-and must have been a citizen of the United States, or a resident in the district, three years preceding his election. An elector must have 50 acres of land in the district-must have been a citizen of one of the states and muft be a resident in the district-or must possess the same freehold—and have been two years a resident in the district, The representatives, when duly elected, are to continue in ofice two years.
The general assembly, or legislature, shall consist of the governor, le. gislative council, and house of representatives. The legislative council thall consist of five members, to continue in office five years, unless sooner removed by Congress. Three make a quorum.—The council are to be thus appointed: The governor and representatives, when met, shall nominate ten persons, residents in the district, and each poslessed of a freehold in 500 acres of land, and return their names to Congress, who mall appoint and commision five of them to serve as aforesaid.
All bills passed by a majority in the house, and in the council, shall be referred to the governor for his assent; but no bill or legislative act whatever, shall be of force without his aflent. The governor shall have power to convene, prorogue, and dissolve the general assembly, when, in his opinion, it shall be expedient.
The legislature, when organized, shall have authority, by joint ballot, to elećt a delegate to Congress, who shall have a seat in Congress, with a right of debating, but not of voting, during this temporary governmcnt.
• And for extending the fundamental principles of civil and religious liberty, which form the basis whereon these republics, their laws and conftitutions are erected; to fix and establish those principles as the basis of all laws, conftitutions and governments, which for ever hereafter shall be
formed in the faid territory; to provide alfo for the establishment of ftates, and permanent government therein, and for their admission to share in the federal councils on an equal footing with the original states, at as early periods as may be consistent with the general interest :
• It is hereby ordained and declared by the authority aforesaid, That the following articles shall be considered as articles of compacts betweet the original itates and the people, and states in the faid territory, and forever remain unalterable, unless by common conferit, to wit:
• Article ift. No person demeaning himself in a peaceable and orderly thanner shall ever be molested on account of his mode of wofship or religious sentiments in the said territory.
• Article 2d. The inhabitants of the said territory shall always be entitled to the benefits of the writ of habeas corpus, and of the trial by jury, of a proportionate representation of the people in the legislature, and of judicial proceedings according to the course of the common law: all perfons shall be bailable unless for capital offences, where the proof shall be evident, or the presumption great : all fines thall be moderate, and no cruel or unusual punishment thall be inflicted; no man shall be deprived of his liberty or property but by the judgment of his peers, or of the law of the land; and should the public exigencies make it necessary for the common preservation to take any person's property, or to demand his particular fervices, full compensation shall be made for the fame; and in the just preservation of the rights and property it is understood and declared, that no law ought ever to be made, or have force in the faid territory, that shall in any manner whatever interfere with, or affect private con tracts or engagements, bona fide, and without fraud previoufly formed.
• Article 3d. Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged, the utmost good faith shall always be observed towards the Indians; their lands and property shall never be taken from them without their consent; and in their property, rights, and liberty, they shall never be invaded or difturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized by Congress; but laws founded on justice and humanity Thall from time to time be made, for preventing wrongs being done to them, and for preserving peace and friendship with them.
Article 4th. The said territory, and the estates which may be formed therein, shall forever remain a part of this confederacy of the United States of America, subject to the articles of confederation, and to fach alterations therein as shall be conftitationally made; and to all the acts and ordinances of the United States, in Congress assembled, conformable thereto. The inhabitants and settlers in the faid territory, shall be subject to pay a part of the federal debts contracted, or to be contracted, and a proportionable part of the expences of government to be apportioned on them by Congress, according to the fame common rule and measure, by which apportionments thereof shall be made on the other states, and the taxes for paying their proportion, shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legillatures of the distriêt or districts, or new ftates, as in the original states, within the time agreed upon by the United States, in Congress assembled. The legislatures of thofe diftricts, or new ftatcs, Thall never interfere with the primary difpofal of the foil, by the United
States, in Congress affembled, nor with any regulations Congress may find necessary for securing the title in such foil to the bona fide purchasers. No tax shall be imposed on lands the property of the United States; and in no case shall non-resident proprietors be taxed higher than residents. The navigable waters leading into the Missisippi and St. Lawrence, and the carrying places between the fame, shall be common highways, and forever free, as well to the inhabitants of the said territory, as to the citizens of the United States, and those of any other states that may be admitted into the confederacy; without any tax, impoft, or duty therefor.
• Article 5th. There shall be formed in the faid territory, not lefs than three, nor more than five states; and the boundaries of the states, as soon as Virginia Mall alter her act of ceffion and consent to the fame, shall become fixed and established as follows, to wit: The western state in the said territory, shall be bounded on the Missisippi, the Ohio, and Wabalh rivers ; a direct line drawn from the Wabath and Post Vincent's due north to the territorial line, between the United States and Canada, and by the faid territorial line to the lake of the Woods and Misisippi. The middle ftate shall be bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash from Poft Vincent’s to the Ohio; by the Ohio, by a direct line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami to the said territorial line, and by the faid territorial line. The eaftern state shall be bounded by the laft mentioned direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said territorial line: Provided however, and it is further understood and declared, that the boundaries of these three states, shall be subject fo far to be altered, that if Congrefs hereafter shall find it expedient, they shall have authority to form one, or two states in that part of the said territory which lies north of an ealt and west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan: and when any of the said ftates all have 60,000 free inhabitants therein, such ftate shall be admitted by its delegates into the Congrefs of the United States, on an equal footing with the original states in all respects whatever; and shall be at liberty to form a permanent constitution and state government: Provided the constitution and government fo to be formed, shall be republican, and in conformity to the principles contained in these articles, and fo far as it can be conlistent with the general intereit of the confederacy, such admillion shall be allowed at an earlier period, and when there may be a less number of free inhabitants in the state than 60,000.
Article 6th. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted: Provided always, that any person escaping into the fame, from whom lahour or service is lawfully claimed in any one of the original states, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the perfon claiming his or her labour or service as aforefaid.'
Such is the present government of the Western Territory, and fuch the political obligations of the adventurers into this fertile and delightful part of the United States.
. . In the ordinance of Congress, for the government of this territory, ic is provided, that, after the said territory acquires a certain degree of * From the anonymous pamphlet before quoted. H h 2
population, it shall be divided into states. The eastern state, that is thus provided to be made, is bounded by the Great Miami on the west, and by ihe Pennsylvania line on the east. The center of this state will fall between the Sioto and the Hockhocking. At the mouth of one of these rivers will probably be the seat of government for this state: And, if we may indulge the sublime contemplation of beholding the whole territory of the United States settled by an enlightened people, and continued under one extended government—on the river Ohio, and not far from this spot, will be the seat of empire for the whole dominion. This is central to the whole; it will best accommodate every part; it is the most pleasant, and probably the most healthful.'
In this connećtion'we must not omit to add, that a settlement is commencing, with advantageous prospects, on the western side of the Miffifippi, opposite the mouth of the Ohio. The spot on which the city is to be built, is called New MADRID, after the capital of Spain. This settlement, which is without the limits of the United States, in the Spanish dominions, is conducted by Colonel Morgan, under the patronage of the Spanish king.
The settlers are to form their own conftitution, make their own laws, (provided they do not counteract the laws of Spain) choose their own magiftrates and civil officers, and are to enjoy free toleration in religion. They are, however, to be subjects of the king of Spain. As an encouragement to settlers, they are to be indulged with some peculiar commercial privileges.
New Madrid, from its local situation and adventitious privileges, is in prospect of being the great emporium of the western country, unless the free navigation of the Millisippi should be opened to the United States. And even should this desired event take place, which probably will not without a rupture with Spain, this must be a place of great trade. For here will naturally center, the immense quantities of produce that will be -borne down the Illinois, the Misisippi, the Ohio, and their various branches; and if the carriers can find as good a market for their cargoes here, as at New Orleans or the West Indies, and can procure the articles they defire, they will gladly fave themselves the difficulties and dangers of navigating the long Missisippi.
It has been supposed by some, that all settlers who go beyond the Mifsisippi, will be forever loit to the United States. There is, I believe, little danger of this, provided they are not provoked to withdraw their friendThip. The emigrants will be made up of citizens of the United States. They will carry along with them their manners and customs, their habits of government, religion, and education; and as they are to be indulged with religious freedom, and with the privilege of making their own laws, and of conducting education upon their own plans, these American habits will undoubtedly be cherished. If so, they will be Americans in fact, though nominally the subjects of Spain.
It is true Spain will draw a revenue from them, but in return they will enjoy peculiar commercial advantages, the benefit of which will be experienced by the United States, and perhaps be an ample compensation for the loss of so many citizens as may migrate thither. In short, this settlement, if conducted with judgment and prudence, may be mutually serviceable