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with a portage of only 4 miles to the Sandulky, a good navigable stream that falls into the Lake Erie. Through the Sandulky and Sioto lies the most common pass from Canada to the Ohio and Misifippi; one of the most extensive and useful communications that are to be found in any country. Prodigious extensions of territory are here connected; and, from the rapidity with which the wettern parts of Canada, Lake Erie and the Kentucky countries are settling, we may anticipate an immense intercourse between them. The lands on the borders of these middle streams, from this circumstance alone, aside from their natural fertility, must be rendered vastly valuable. There is no doubt, but four, corn, flax, hemp, &c. raised for exportation in that great country between the Lakes Huron and Ontario, will find an easier outlet through Lake Erie and these rivers, than in any other direction. The Ohio merchant can give a higher price than those of Quebec, for these commodities; as they may be transported from the former to Florida and the West India illands, with less expence, risk and insurance, than from the latter; while the expence from the place of growth to the Ohio will not be one fourth of what it would be to Quebec, and much less than even to the Oneyda lake. The stream of Sioto is gentle, no where broken by falls : At some places, in the spring of the year, it overflows its banks, providing for large natural rice plantations. Salt springs, coal mines, white and blue clay, and free-stone, abound in the country adjoining this river.
The Little Miani is too small for batteaux navigation. Its banks are good land, and so high as to prevent, in common, the overflowing of the water.
The Great Miami has a very stoney channel, and a swift stream, but no falls. It is formed of several large branches, which are passable for boats a great distance, One branch comes from the west, and rises in the Wabash country: Another rises near the head waters of Miami river, which runs into Lake Erie; and a short portage divides another branch, from the west branch of Sanduíky river.
The Wabast is a beautiful river, with high and fertile banks. It - empties into the Ohio, by a mouth 270 yards wide, 1020 miles below
Fort Pitt. In the spring, summer and autumn, it is passable with batteaux, drawing three feet water, 412 miles, to Quitanon, a small French settlement, on the weit side of the river; and for large canoes 197 miles further, to the Miami carrying place, 9 miles from Miami village. This village stands on Miami river, which empties into the south-west part of Lake Erie. The communication between Detroit, and the Illinois, and Ohio countries is, down Miami river to Miami village, thence, by land, 9 miles when the rivers are high-and from 18 to 30 when they are low, through a level country, to the Wabash, and through the various branches of the Wabash to the places of destination.
A silver mine has been discovered about 28 miles above Ouitanon, on the northern side of the Wabath. Salt springs, lime, free-stone, blue, yellow and white clay are found in plenty upon this siver.
The rivers A Vase and Kuskeskias empty into the Misfifippi from the north-east; the former is navigable for boats 60, and the latter about 130 miles. They both run through a rich country, which has extensive meadows,
Between the Kakaikias and Illinois rivers, which are 84 miles apart, is an extensive tract of level, rich land, which terminates in a high sidge, about 15 miles before you reach the Illinois river. In this delightful vale are a number of French villages, which, together with thofe of St. Genevieve and St. Louis, on the wellern side of the Misilppi, contained in 1771, 1,273 fencible men.
One hundred and seventy-six miles above the Ohio, and 18 miles above the Missouri, the Illinois empties into the Visilippi fron the north-east by a mouch about 400 yards wide. This river is bordered with fine mea. dows, which in some places extend as far as the eye can reach: This siver furnishes a communication with Lake Michigan, by the Chicago jrer, between which and the Illinois, are two portages, the longeft of which does not exceed 4 miles. It receives a number of rivers which are from 20 to 100 yards wide, and navigable for boats froin 15 to iso miles. On the northwestern side of this siver is a coal snine, which extends for half a mile along the middle of the bank of the river. On the castern fide, about half a mile from the river, and about the same distance below the coal mine, are two falt ponds, 100 yards in circumference, and several feet in depth. The water is Hagnant, and of a yellowish colour; but the French and natires make good falt fr. m it. The soil of the Illinois countr; is, in general, of 2 fuperior quality--its natural grouth are oak, hiccory, cedar, mulberry, &c. hops, dying drugs, medicinal plants of several kinds, and excelkmt wild grapes. In the year 1769, the French fettlers made iro hogtheads of itrong wine from these grapes.
There are many other rivers of equal fize and importance with those we have been describing, which are not sufficiently known for accurate descriptions.
Population.] It is impossible to tell the cxaci population of this country, Mr. Hutchins, the geographer of the United States, who is the best acquainted with the country, estimates them at about 6000 fouls, exclusive of Indians. This number is made up of French, English emigrants from the original itates, and negroes.
Face of the country, joil and productions. ] To the remarks on these heads, interspersed in the descriprion of the rivers, we will add some obfervations from an anonymous painphler, lately published, which we presume are the most authentic, respecting that part of the country which has beca purchased of the Indians, of any that have been given. ' The undistinguished terms of admiration, that are commonly used in speaking of the natural fertility of the country on the western waters of the United States, would render it difficult, without accurate attention in the surveys, to ascribe a preference to any particular part; or to give a just defcription of the territory under consideration, without the hazard of being suspected of exaggeration : But in this we have the united opinion of the geographer, the surveyors, and every traveller that has been inti. mately acquainted with the country, and marked every natural object with ihe moit fcrupulous exactress That no part of the federal territory unites fo many advantages, in point of health, fertility, variety of produce rion, and foreign intercourse, as that tract which stretches from the Mula kingum to the Sioto and the Great Miami rivers.
Colonel Gordon, in his journal, speaking of a much larger range of country, in which this is included, and makes unqueitionably the tineit
part, ratt, has the following observation :-" The country on the Ohio is every where pleasant, with large level spots of rich land ; and remarkably healthy. One general remark of this nature will serve for the whole tract of the globe comprehended between the western kirts of the Allegany mountains; thence running fouth-westwardly to the distance of 500 miles to the Ohio falls; then crolling thein northerly to the heads of the rivers Uzat empty themfeives into the Ohio; thence east along the ridge that feparates the lakes and Ohio's (treams, to French creck. This country may, from a proper knowledge, be affirmed to be the most healthy, the most pleasant, the most commodious and mod fertile spot of earth, known to the European people.” ." The lands that feed the various Atreams above-mentioned, which fall into the Ohio, are now more accurately known, and may be described with confidence and precifion. They are interpersed with all the varie. ty of soil which conduces to pleasantness of situation, and lays the foundation for the wealth of an agricultural and manufacturing people. Large level bottoms, or natural meadows, from 20 to 50 miles in circuit, are every where found bordering the rivers, and variegating the country in the interior parts. These afford as rich a foil as can be imagined, and may be reduced to proper cultivation with very little labour. It is said, that in many of these bottoms a inan may clear an acre a day, fit for planting with Indian corn; there being no under wood; and the trees, growing very high and large, but not thick together, zeed nothing but girdling.
• The prevailing growth of timber and the more useful trees are, maple or sugar iree, sycamore, black and white mulberry, black and white walout, butternut, chesnut, white, black, Spanish and chesnut oaks, hiccory. cherry, buckwood, honey locuit, elm, horse chesnut, cucumber tree, lynn iree, guin tree, iron wood, ash, aspin, faffafras, crab apple tree, pau, paw or cuitard apple, a variety of plum trees, nine bark spice, and leather wood bufnes. General Parsons measured a black walnut tree near the Muskingum, whose circumference, at 5 feet from the ground, was 22 feet. A sycamore, near the same place, measures 44 feet in circumference, at some distance from the ground. White and black oak, and chesnut, with most of the above-mentioned timbers, grow large and plenty upon the high grounds. Both the high and low lands produce vast quanti. ties of natural grapes of various kinds, of which the settlers universally make a sufficiency for their own confumption of rich red wine. It is asserted in the old settlement of St. Vincent's, where they have had op. portunity to try it, that age will render this wine preferable to most of the Europcan wines. Cotton is the natural production of this country, and grows in great perfection.
The lugar maple is a most valuable tree for an inland country. Any number of inhabitants may be for ever supplied with a sufficiency of sugar, by preserving a few trees for the use of each fainily, A tree will yield about ten pounds of sugar a year, and the labour is very trifling: The fap is extracted in the months of February and March, and granulated, by the simple operation of boiling, to a sugar cqual in flavour and whitenels to the best Muscovado. ..Springs of excellent water abound in every part of this territory : and small and large streams, for mills and other purposes, are actually in
terspersed, as if by art, that there be no deficiency in any of the coarés niencies of life.
• Very little waste land is to be found in any part of this tract of country. There are no swamps; and though the hills are frequent, they are gentle and swelling, no where high, nor incapable of tillage. They are of a deep, rich soil, covered with a heavy growth of timber, and well adapted to the production of wheat, rye, indigo, tobacco, &c.
• The communications between this country and the fea will be principally in the four following directions.
1. The ront through the Sioto and Muskingum to Lake Erie, and so to the river Hudson: which has been already defcribed.
• 2. The passage up the Ohio and Monongahela to che portage abovementioned, which leads to the navigable waters of the Potowmac. This portage is 30 miles, and will probably be rendered much less by the execution of the plans now on foot for opening the navigation of those waters.
! 3. The Great Kanhaway, which falls into the Ohio from the Virgi. nia shore, between the Hockhocking and the Sioto, opens an extensive na. vigation from the south-east, and leaves but 18 miles portage from the na. vigable waters of James river, in Virginia. This eommunication, for the country between Muskingum and Sioto, will probably be more used than any other, for the exportation of manufactures, and other light and valua. ble articles; and, especially, for the importation of foreign commodities, which may be brought from the Chesapeek to the Ohio inuch cheaper than they are now carried from Philadelphia to Carlifle, and the other thick settled back counties of Pennsylvania. ' 4. But the current down the Ohio and the Miffisippi, for heavy articles that suit the Florida and West-India markets, 'Luch as corn, flour, beef, lumber, &c. will be more frequently loaded than any streams on earth. The distance from the Sioto to the Miilifippi is. 800 miles; from thence to the sea is 900. This whole course is easily run in 15 days; and the passage up those rivers is not so diificult as has usually been represent. ed. It is found, by late experiments, that fails are used to great advantage against the current of the Ohio: And it is worthy of obferyation, that in all probability steam boats will be found to do infinite service in all our extensive river navigation.
• As far as observations in passing the rivers, and the transitory remarks of travellers will justify an opinion, the lands farther down, and in other parts of the unappropriated country, are not equal, in point of soil and other local advantages, to the tract which is here described. This, how. ever, cannot be accurately determined, as the present ficuation of these countries will not admit of that minute inspection which has been bestowed on the one under confideration. .
It is a happy circumstance, that the Ohio Company are about to com. mence the settlement of this country in so regular and judicious a mana ner. It will serve as a wise model for the future settlement of all the federal lands; at the same time that, by beginning fo near the western limit of Pennsylvania, it will be a continuation of the old settlements, leaving vacant no lands exposed to be seized by such lawless banditti as usually infelt the frontiers of countries distant from the seat of government,