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with a portage of only 4 miles to the Sandalky, a good navigable stream that falls into the Lake Erie. Through the Sandulky and Sioto lies the most common pass from Canada to the Ohio and Misisippi; one of the most extensive and useful communications that are to be found in any country. Prodigious extensions of territory are here connected; and, from the rapidity with which the western parts of Canada, Lake Erie and the Kentucky countries are settling, we may anticipate an immense intercourse between them. The lands on the borders of these middle streams, from this circumstance alone, aside from their natural fertility, must be rendered vastly valuable. There is no doubt, but lour, corn, fax, hemp, &c. raised for exportation in that great country between the Lakes Huron and Ontario, will find an eafier outlet through Lake Erie and these rivers, than in any other direEtion. The Ohio mercliant can give a higher price than those of Quebec, for these commodities; as they may be transported from the former to Florida and the West India iilands, with less expence, risk and insurance, than from the latter; while the expence from the place of growth to the Ohio will not be one fourth of what it would be to Quebec, and much less than even to the Oneyda lake. The stream of Sioto is gentle, no where broken by falls : At some places, in the spring of the year, it overflows its banks, providing for large natural rice plantations. Salt springs, coal mines, white and blue clay, and free-stone, abound in the country adjoining this river.

The Little Miami is too small for batteaux navigation. Its banks are good land, and so high as to prevent, in common, the overflowing of the water.

The Great Miami has a very stoney channel, and a swift stream, but no falls. It is formed of several large branches, which are passable for boats a great distance. One branch comes from the west, and rises in the Wabalh country: Another rises near the head waters of Miami river, which runs into Lake Erie; and a short portage divides another branch, from the west branch of Sandusky river.

The Wabaflt is a beautiful river, with high and fertile banks. It empties into the Ohio, by a mouth 270 yards wide, 1020 miles below Fort Pitt. In the spring, fummer and autumn, it is passable with batteaux, drawing three feet water, 412 miles, to Ouitanon, a small French settlement, on the west side of the river; and for large canoes 197 miles further, to the Miami carrying place, 9 miles from Miami village.' This village stands on Miami river, which empties into the south-w eit part of Lake Erie. The communication between Detroit, and the Illinois, and Ohio countries is, down Miami river to Miami village, thence, by land, 9 miles when the rivers are high—and from 18 to 30 when they are low, through a level country, to the Wabash, and through the various branches of the Wabash to the places of destination.

A silver mine has been discovered about 28 miles above Ouitanon, on the northern side of the Wabash. Salt springs, lime, free-stone, blue, yellow and white clay are found in plenty upon this river.

The rivers A Vase and Kajkafkias empty into the Misisippi from the north-east; the former is navigable for boats 60, and the latter about 130 miles. They both run through a rich country, which has extensive meadows.


Between the Kafkakias and Illinois rivers, which are 84 miles apart, is an extenfive tract of level, rich land, which terminates in a high ridge, about 15 miles before you reach the Illinois river. In this delightful vale are a number of French villages, which, together with those of St. Genevieve and St. Louis, on the western side of the Mißilippi, contained in 1771, 1,273 fencible men.

One hundred and eventy-fix miles abore the Ohio, and 18 miles above the Missouri, the Illinois empties into the Mililippi from the north-east by a mouth about 400 yards wide. This river is bordered with fine meadows, which in fome places extend as far as the eye can reach: This river furnishes a communication with Lake Michigan, by the Chicago river, between which and the Illinois, are two portages, the longeft of which does not exceed 4 miles. lt receives a number of rivers which are from 20 to 100 yards wide, and navigable for beats froin 15 to 180 miles. On the vorthwestern side of this siver is a coal mine, which extends for half a mile along the middle of the bank of the river. On the eastern ide, about half a mile from the river, and about the same distance below the coal mine, are two fakt ponds, 100 yards in circumference, and several feet in depth. The water is ftagnant, and of a yellowish colour; but the French and natives make good salt fr. m it. The soil of the Illinois country is, in general, of a fuperior quality--its natural grouth are oak, hiccory, cedar, mulberry, &c. hops, dying drugs, medicinal plants of several kinds, and excellent wild

grapes. In the year 1769, the French fettlers made iro hogsheads of trong wine from these grapes.

There are many other rivers of equal fize and importance with those we have been describing, which are not fufficiently known for accurate defcriptions.

Population. It is impossible to tell the exact population of this country, Mr. Hutchins, the geographer of the United States, who is the best acquainted with the country, estimates them at about 6000 fouls, exclusive of Indians. This number is made up of French, English enigrants from the originalitates, and negroes.

Face of the country, foil and productions.] To the remarks on these heads, interspersed in the defcription of the rivers, we will add fome obfervations from an anonymous pamphler, lately published, which we presume are the most authentic, respecting that part of the country which has beea purchased of the Indians, of any that have been given.

• The undistinguished terms of adıniration, that are commonly used in speaking of the natural fertility of the country on the western waters of the United States, would render it difficult, without accurate attention in the surveys, to ascribe a preference to any particular part; or to give a just defcription of the territory under consideration, without the hazard of being suspected of exaggeration : But in this we have the united opinion of the geographer, the furveyors, and every traveller that has been intimately acquainted with the country, and marked every natural object with the most scrupulous exactress_That no part of the federal territory unites so many advantages, in point of health, fertility, variety of production, and foreign intercourse, as that tract which stretches from the Mur. kingum to the Sjoto and the Great Miami rivers.

Colonel Gordon, in his journal, speaking of a much larger range of country, in which this is included, and makes unqucftionably the finest


part, has the following obfervation :-" The country on the Ohio is every where pleasant, with large level spots of rich land; and remarkably healthy. One general remark of this nature will serve for the whole tract of the globe comprehended between the western skirts of the Allegany mountains; thence running fouth-weltwardly to the distance of 500 miles to the Ohio falls ; then crolling the northerly to the heads of the rivers that empty themselves into the Ohio; thence ealt along the ridge that feparates the lakes and Ohio's streams, to French creek. This country may, from a proper knowledge, be affirmed to be the most healthy, the most pleasant, the most commodious and most fertile {pot of earth, known to the European people.

• The lands chat feed the various itreams above-mentioned, which fall into the Ohio, are now more accurately known, and may be described with confidence and precifion. They are interspersed with all the variety of soil which conduces to pleasantness of situation, and lays the foundation for the wealth of an agricultural and manufacturing people. Large level bottoms, or natural meadows, from 20 to 50 miles in circuit, are every where found bordering the rivers, and variegating the country in the interior parts. These afford as rich a foil as can be imagined, and may be reduced to proper cultivation with very little labour. It is said, that in many of these bottoms a man may clear an acre a day, fit for planting with Indian corn; there being no under wood; and the trees, growing very high and large, but not thick together, need nothing but girdling.

* The prevailing growth of timber and the more useful trees are, maple or sugar tree, sycamore, black and white inulberry, black and white wala dut, butternut, chesnut, white, black, Spanish and chesnut oaks, hiccory, cherry, buckwood, honey locuft, elm, horse chesnut, cucumber tree, lynn tree, gum tree, iron wood, ash, aspin, sassafras, crab apple tree, paupaw or cuitard apple, a variety of plum trees, nine bark spice, and leather wood bushes. General Parsons measured a black walnut tree near the Muskingum, whose circumference, at 5 feet from the ground, was 22 feet. A sycamore, near the same place, measures 44 feet in circumference, at some distance from the ground. White and black oak, and chesnut, with most of the above-mentioned timbers, grow large and plenty upon the high grounds. Both the high and low lands produce vaft quantigies of natural grapes of various kinds, of which the settlers universally make a fufficiency for their own confumption of rich red wine. It is asserted in the old settlement of St. Vincent's, where they have had opportunity to try it, that age will render this wine preferable to most of the European wines. Cotton is the natural production of this country, and grows in great perfection.

• The sugar maple is a most valuable tree for an inland country. Any number of inhabitants may be for ever fupplied with a sufficiency of sugar, by preserving a few trees for the use of each family. A tree will yield about ten pounds of sugar a year, and the labour is very trifling: The fap is extracted in the months of February and March, and granulated, by the simple operation of builing, to a fugar equal in favour and whiteneis to the best Muscovado.

· Springs of excellent water abound in every part of this territory: and small and large streams, for mills and other purposes, are actually in


terspersed, as if by art, that there be no deficiency in any of the conrea niencies of life.

Very little waste land is to be found in any part of this tract of country. There are no swamps; and though the hills are frequent, they are gentle and swelling, no where high, nor incapable of tillage. They are of a deep, rich soil, covered with a heavy growth of timber, and well adapted to the production of wheat, rye, indigo, tobacco, &c.

• The communications between this country and the sea will be princi. pally in the four following directions.

• 1. The rout through the Sioto and Muskingum to Lake Erie, and so to the river Hudson: which has been already defcribed.

2. The paffage up the Ohio and Monongahela to the portage abovementioned, which leads to the navigable waters of the Potowmac. This portage is 30 miles, and will probably be rendered much less by the exe. cution of the plans now on foot for opening the navigation of those waters.

3. The Great Kanhaway, which falls into the Ohio from the Virgi. nia shore, between the Hockhocking and the Sioto, opens an extensive na. vigation from the south-east, and leaves but 18 miles portage from the navigable waters of James river, in Virginia. This eommunication, for the country between Muskingum and Sioto, will probably be more used than any other, for the exportation of manufactures, and other light and valuable articles; and, efpecially, for the importation of foreign commodities, which may be brought from the Chesapeek to the Ohio much cheaper than they are now carried from Philadelphia to Carlifle, and the other thick setyled back counties of Pennsylvania.

4. But the current down the Ohio and the Missisippi, for heavy articles that suit the Florida and West-India markets, such as corn, four, beef, lumber, &c. will be more frequently loaded than any streams on earth. The distance from the Sioto to the Misisippi is. 800 miles ; from thence to the sea is 900. This whole course is eatily run in 15 days; and the passage up those rivers is not so difficult as has usually been represente ed. It is found, by late experiments, that fails are used to great advantage against the current of the Ohio : And it is worthy of obfervation, that in all probability steam boats will be found to do infinite service in all our extensive river navigation.

• As far as observations in passing the rivers, and the transitory remarks of travellers will justify an opinion, the lands further down, and in other parts of the unappropriated country, are not equal, in point of soil and other local advantages, to the tract which is here described. This, how. ever, cannot be accurately determined, as the present situation of these countries will not admit of that minute inspection which has been bestowed on the one under confideration,

• It is a happy circumstance, that the Ohio Company are about to come mence the settlement of this country in fo regular and judicious .a manner. It will serve as a wise model for the future settlement of all the federal lands; at the same time that, by beginning so near the western limit of Pennsylvania, it will be a continuation of the old settlements, leaving vacant no lands exposed to be seized by such lawless banditti as usually infelt the frontiers of countries distant from the seat of government.


• The design of Congress and of the settlers is, that the settlements shall proceed regularly down the Ohio; and northward to Lake Erie. And it is probable that not many years will elapse, before the whole country above Miami will be brought to that degree of cultivation, which will exhibit all its latent beauties, and justify those descriptions of travellers which have so often made it the garden of the world, the feat of wealth, and the centre of a great empire.'

Animals, &c.] · No country is better stocked with wild game of every kind : Innumerable herds of deer, elk, buffalo, and bear, are sheltered in the groves, and fed in the extensive bottoms that every where abound; an unquestionable proof of the great fertility of the foil: Turkies, geese, ducks, swans, teal, pheafants, partridges, &c. are, from observation, believed to be in greater plenty here, than the tame poultry are in any part of the old settlements in America.

• The rivers are well stored with fish of various kinds, and many of them of an excellent quality. They are generally large, though of different fizes : The cat-filh, which is the largest, and of a delicious flavour, weighs from 30 to 80 pounds.'

Antiquities and Curiosities.] The number of old forts found in the Kenfucky country are the admiration of the curious, and a matter of much speculation. They are mostly of a circular form, situated on strong, well chosen ground, and contiguous to water. When, by whom, and for what purpose, these were thrown up, is uncertain. They are certainly very ancient, as there is not the least visible difference in the age or size of the timber. growing on or within these forts, and that which grows without; and the oldest natives have lost all tradition respecting them. They must have been the efforts of a people much more devoted to labour than our present race of Indians; and it is difficult to conceive how they could be constructed without the use of iron tools. At a convenient distance from these always ftands a small mount of earth, thrown up in the form of a pyramid, and seems in some measure proportioned to the size of its adjacent fortification. On examination, they have been found to contain a chalky substance, supposed to be bones, and of the human kind.

On an extensive plain, or, as the French term it parara *, between Post St. Vincent and Cuscusco river, is what is called the Battle Ground, where the Siack and Cuscusco Indians fought a desperate battle, in which about 800 were killed on each side. On this spot, the ground for two miles is covered with skulls and other human bones.

Forts.] The stations occupied by the troops of the United States on the frontiers, are the following,

Fort FRANKLIN-On French creek, near to the post formerly called Venango, is a fmall strong fort with one cannon, was erected in 1787, and

* A parara, which answers to what in the fouthern states is called a savannah, is an extensive rich plain, without trees, and covered with grass. Some of these pararas, between Port St. Vincent and the Milippi are 30 or 40 miles broad, and several hundred miles in length. In passing them, as far as the pye can reach, there is not a tree to be jeen; but there is plenty of buffaloes, deer, elks, bears, and quotes, and innumerable flocks of turkies; these, with the green grass, form a rich and beautiful prospect.


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