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reconnoitring the country, marked the spot on which Savannah now stands, as the fittest to begin their settlement. Here they accordingly be. gan, and built a small fort; a number of small huts for their defence and accommodation. Such of the fertlers as were able to bear arms, were embodied, and well appointed with officers, arms, and ammunition.A treaty of friendship was concluded between the settlers and their neighbours, and the Creek Indians, and every thing wore the aspect of peace and future prosperity.
In the mean time the trustees for Georgia had been employed in framing a plan of settlement, and establishing such public regulations as they judged most proper for answering the great end of the corporation. In this general plan they considered each inhabitant both as a planter and a soldier, who must be provided with arms and ammunition for defence, as well as with tools and utensils for cultivation. As the strength of the province was their chief object in view, they agreed to establish such tenures for holding lands in it as they judged most favourable for a military establishment. Each tract of land granted was considered as a military fief, for which the possessor was to appear in arms, and take the field, when called upon for the public defence. To prevent large tracts from falling in process of time into one hand, they agreed to grant their lands in tail male in preference to tail general. On the termination of the eftate in tail male, the lands were to revert to the trust; and such lands thus reverting were to be granted again to such persons, as the common-council of the trust should judge most advantageous for the colony; only the trustees in such a case were to pay special regard to the daughters of such per. fons as had made improvements on their lots, especially when not already provided for by marriage. The wives of such persons as should survive ihem, were to be, during their lives, entitled to the mansion-house, and one-half of the lands improved by their husbands. No man was to be permitted to depart the province without licence. If any of the lands granted by the trustees shall not be cultivated, cleared, and fenced round about with a worm fence, or pales, fix feet high, within eighteen years from the date of the grant, such part was to revert to the trust, and the grant with respect to it to be void. All forfeitures for non-residence, high-treason, felonies, &c. were to the trustees for the use and benefit of the colony. The use of negroes was to be absolutely prohibited, and also the importation of rum. None of the colonists were to be permitted to trade with Indians, but such as should obtain a special licence for that purpose.
These were some of the fundamental regulations established by the truftees of Georgia, and perhaps the imagination of man could scarcely have framed a system of rules worse adapted to the circumstances and situation of the poor settlers, and of more pernicious consequence to the profperity of the province. Yet, although the trustees were greatly mistaken, with respect to their plan of settlement, it must be acknowledged their views were generous. As the people sent out by them were the poor and unfortunate, who were to be provided with necessaries at their public store, they received their lands upon condition of cultivation, and, by their personal residence, of defence. Silk and wine being the chief articles intended to be raised, they judged negroes were not requifite to these pur
poses. As the colony was designed to be a barrier to South-Carolina, against the Spanish settlement at Auguftine, they imagined that negroes would rather weaken than strengthen it, and that such poor colonists would run in debt, and ruin themselves by purchasing them. Rum was judged pernicious to health, and ruinous to the infant settlement. A free trade with Indians was considered as a thing that might have a tendency to involve the people in quarrels and troubles with the powerful favages, and expose them to danger and destruction. Such were, probably, the motives which induced those humane and generous persons to impose such foolish and ridiculous restrictions on their colony. For by granting their small estates in tail male, they drove the settlers from Georgia, who foon found that abundance of lands could be obtained in America upon a larger scale, and on much better terms. By the prohibition of negroes, they rendered it impracticable in such a climate to make any impression on the thick forests, Europeans being utterly unqualified for the heavy task. By their discharging a trade with the Weft-Indies, they not only deprived the colonists of an excellent and convenient market for their lumber, of which they had abundance on their lands, but also of rum, which, when mixed with a sufficient quantity of water, has been found in experience the cheapest, the most refreshing, and nourishing drink for workmen in such a foggy and burning climate. The trustees, like other diftant legislators, who framed their regulations upon prin. *ciples of speculation, were liable to many errors and mistakes, and however good their design, their rules were found improper and inpracticable. "The Carolinians plainly perceived that they would prove insurmountable obstacles to the progress and prosperity of the colony, and therefore from motives of pity began to invite the poor Georgians to come over Savannah river, and settle in Carolina, being convinced that they could never succeed under such impolitic and oppressive restrictions.
Besides the large sums of money which the trustees had expended for the settlement of Georgia, the parliament had also granted during the two last years £:36,000 towards carrying into execution the humane purpose of the corporation. But after the representation and memorial from the legislature of Carolina reached Britain, the nation considered Georgia to be of the utmost importance to the British settlements in America, and began to make still more vigorous efforts for its speedy population. The first embarkations of poor people from England, being collected from towns and cities, were found equally idle and useless members of society abroad, as they had been at home. An hardy and bold race of men, inured to ru. ral labour and fatigue, they were persuaded would be much better adapted both for cultivation and defence. To find men possessed of these qualifications, they turned their eyes to Germany and the Highlands of Scotland, and resolved to send over a number of Scotch and German labourers to their infant province. When they published their terms at Inverness, an hundred and thirty Highlanders immediately accepted them, and were transported to Georgia. A township on the river Alatamaha, which was cone fidered as the boundary between the British and Spanish territories, was allotted for the Highlanders, on which dangerous situation they settled, and built a town, which they called New Inverness. About the same time an hundred and seventy Germans embarked with James Oglethorpe,
and were fixed in another quarter ; so that, in the space of three years, Georgia received above four hundred British subjects, and about an hundred and seventy foreigners. Afterwards several adventurers, both from Scotland and Germany, followed their countrymen, and added further strength to the province, and the trustees flattered themselves with the hopes of foon seeing it in a promising condition.
Their hopes, however, were vain. Their injudicious regulations and restrictions--the wars in which they were involved with the Spaniards and Indians—and the frequent insurrections among themselves, threw the colony into a state of confusion and wretchedness too great for human nature long to endure. Their oppressed situation was represented to the trustees by repeated complaints ; till at length, finding that the province languished under their care, and weary with the complaints of the people, they, in the year 1752, surrendered their charter to the king, and it was made a royal government. In consequence of which, his majesty appointed John Reynolds, an officer of the navy, governor of the province, and a legislature, similar to that of the other royal governments in America, was established in it. Great had been the expence which the mother country bad already incurred, besides private benefactions, for supporting this colony; and small have been the return; vet made by it. The vestiges of cultivation was scarcely perceptible in the forests, and in England all commerce with it was neglected and despised. At this time the whole annual exports of Georgia did not amount 10 €.10,000 sterling. Though the people were now favoured with the same liberties and privileges enjoyed by their neighbours under the roral care, yet several years more elapsed before the value of the lands in Georgia was known, and that spirit of industry broke out in it, which afterwards diffused its happy influence over
In the year 1740, the Rev. Gcorge Whitefield founded an orphan-house academy in Georgia, about 12 miles froin Savannah.—For the support of this, in his itinerations, he collected large sums of money of all denominations of christians, both in England and America. A part of this money was expended in erecting proper buildings to accominodate the students, and a part in supporting them. In 1768, it was proposed that the orphan-house Thould be erected into a college. Whereupon Mr. Whitefield applied to the crown for a charter, which would have been readily granted, on condition that the president should, in all successions, be an Episcopalian, of the Church of England. Several letters passed between the archbishop of Can. terbury and Mr. Whitefield on the subject, in which the archbishop infifted on this condition. But Mr. Whitefield, though himself an Episcopalian, declined it, alledging to his grace, that it would be unjust to limit that office to any particular feit, when the donations for the foundation of the inftitution had been made and intruited to him by the various religious denominations, both in England and America. In consequence of this dispute, the affair of a charter was given up, and Mr. Whitefield made his assignment of the orphan-house in trust to the countess of Huntingdon. Mr. Whitefield died at Newbury Port, in New-England, in October, 1770, in the 56th year of his age, and was buried under the Presbyterian church in that place,
457 Soon after his death a charter was granted to his institution in Georgia, and the Rev. Mr. Percy was appointed president of the college. Mr. Percy accordingly came over to execute his office, but, unfortunately, on the zoth of May, 1775, the orphan-house building caught fire, and was entirely consumed, except the two wings, which are fill remaining. The American war soon after came on, and put every thing into confusion, and the funds have ever fince lain in an unproductive itate. It is probable, that the college estate may hereafter be so incorporated with the university of Georgia, as to subserve the original and pious purposes of its founder.
From the time Georgia became a royal governntent, in 1752, till the peace of Paris, in 1763, the struggled under many difficulties, arising from the want of credit, from friends, and the frequent molestations of cnemies. The good effects of the peace were fenfibly felt in the province of Georgia. From this time it began to flourish, under the fatherly care of Governor Wright. To form a judgment of the rapid growth of the colony, we need only attend to its exports.
In the year 1763, the exports of Georgia consisted of 7,500 barrels of rice, 9,633 pounds of indigo, 1,250 bushels of Indian corn, which, together with deer and beaver skins, naval stores, provisions, timber, &c. amounted to no more than 4:27,021 fterling. Ten years afterwards, in 3773, it exported commodities to the value of £.121,677. sterling.
During the late war, Georgia was over-run by the British troops, and the inhabitants were obliged to flee into the neighbouring states for fafety. The sufferings and losies of her citizens were as great, in proportion to their numbers and wealth, as in any of the Itates. Since the peace, the progress of the population of this state has been astonishingly rapid. Its growth in improvement and population has been checked by the hoftile irruptions of the Creek Indians, which have been frequent, and very diftressing to the frontier inhabitants for these two years paft. This formidable nation of Indians, headed by one Mac Gilvery, an inhabitant of Georgia, who fided with the British in the late war, ftill continue to harrafs the frontiers of this state. Treaties have been held, and a ceffation of hostilities agreed to between the parties; but all have hitherto proved ineffe&tual to the accomplithment of a peace. It is expected that, under the new government, conciliatory measures will be adopted, and tranquillity restored to the itate.
The WESTERN TERRITORY.
UNDER this name is comprehended all that part of the United Misisippi river; north, by the Lakes ; east, by Pennsylvania ; south-east and south, by the Ohio river. Containing, according to Mr. Hutchins, 411,000 square miles, equal to 263,040,000 acres-irom which, if we
deduct 43,040,000 acres for water, there will remain 220,000,coo of acres, belonging to the federal government, to be sold for the discharge of the national debt ; except a narrow strip of land, bordering on the fouth of Lake Erie, and stretching 120 miles west of the western limit of Pennsylvania, which belongs to Connecticut.
But a small proportion of these lands is yet purchased of the natives, and to be disposed of by Congress. Beginning on the meridian line, which forms the western boundary of Pennsylvania, feven ranges of townships have been surveyed and laid off by order of Congress. As a north and south line strikes the Ohio in an oblique direction, the termination of the 7th range falls upor that river, 9 miles above the Mukingum, which is the first large river that falls into the Ohio. It forms this junction 172 miles below fort Pitt, including the windings of the Ohio, though in a direct line it is but go miles.
The lands in which the Indian title is extinguished, and which are now purchasing under the United States, are bounded by Pennsylvania on the east, by the Great Miami on the west, by the Ohio on the south, and extend nearly to the head waters of the Muskingum and Sioto on the north. On these lands two settlements are commencing, one at Masietta *, at the mouth of Muskingum, under the direction of the Ohio company. This settlement confifts, at present, of about 220 fouls, and is alinost daily increasing. The other between the Miami rivers, under the direction of Colonel Symmes, which, though very small at present, is in prospect of a rapid enlargement. There are several other tracts, delineated on the map, which have been granted by Congress to particular companies, and other tracts for particular uses, which remain without any English settlements.
Rivers.] The Mnskingum is a gentle river, confined by banks so high as to prevent its overflowing. It is 250 yards wide at its confluence with the Ohio, and navigable by large batteaux and barges to the Three Legs; and, by small ones, to the lake at its head. From thence, by a portage of about one mile, a communication is opened to Lake Erie, through the Cayahoga, which is a ftream of great utility, navigable the whole length, without any obstruction from falls. From Lake Erie, the avenue is well known to the Hudson in the state of New York.
The Horkhocking resembles the Muskingum, though somewhat inferior in fize. It is navigable for large boats about 70 miles, and for small ones much farther. On the banks of this very useful ftream are found inexhaustible quarries of free.stone, large beds of iron ore, and some rich mines of lead. Coal mines and falt springs are frequent in the neighbourhood of this stream, as they are in every part of the weftern territory, The salt that may be obtained from those springs will afford an inexhausti. ble store of that necessary article. Beds of white and blue clay, of an excellent quality, are likewise found here, suitable for the manufacture of glass, crockery, and other earthen wares. Red bole and many other useful foslils have been obferved on the branches of this river.
The Sigro is a larger river than either of the preceding, and opens a more extensive navigation. It is paliable for large barges for 200 miles, * This place was firft called Adelphi, and is so called in the map.