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Eefore the revolution, Georgia, like all the southern states, was disidet into parifties; but this mode of division is now abolished, and that of counries has succeeded in its room.
Chief Towns.] The present seat of government in this state is Au. GUSTA. It is situated on the south-weit bank of Savannah river, about 134 miles from the sea, and 117 north-west of Sarannal. The town, which contains not far from 200 houies, is on a fine large plain ; and as it enjoys the best foil, and the advantage of a central situation between the upper and lower counties, is riimg fait into inportance.
SAVANNAH, the former capital of Grorgia, stands on a high sandy bluif, on the south fide of tie river of the faine name, and 17 miles from its mouth. The town is regularly built in the form of a parallelogram, and, including its suburbs, contains 227 dwelling-houses, one Episcopal church, a German Lutheran church, a Proibyterian church, a Synagogue, and Court-house. The number of its inhabitants, exclusive of the blacks, amount to about 830, seventy of wicm are Jews.
In Savannah, and within a circumference of about 10 miles from it, there were, in the summer of 1787, about 2300 inhabitants. Of there, 192 were above 50 years of age, and all in good health. The ages of a lady and her six children, then living in the town, amounted to 3.5 years. This computation, which was actuaily made, serves to thew that Savannah is not really so unhealthy as hrs becn commonly represented,
SUNBURY is a sea port town, favoured with a safe and very convenient harbour. Several small islands intervene, and partly obftruét a direét view of the ocean ; and, interlocking with each other, render the passage out to fea winding, but not difficult. It is a very pleasant, healthy town, and is the resort of the planters from the adjacent places of Midway and New. port, during the sickly months. It was burnt by the British in the late war, but is now recovering its former populousness and importance.
BRUNSWICK, in Glynn county, lat. 31° 16', is fituated at the mouth of Turtle river, at which place this river empties itself into St. Simon's sound. Brunswick has a lite harbour, and sufficiently large to contain the whole of his Molt Christian Majesty's fleet; and the bar, at the entrance into it, has water deep enough for the largest vessel that swims, The town is regelarly laid out, but not yet built. From its advantage. gus fituation, and from the fertility of the back country, it promises to be hercaster one of the firit trading towns in Georgia.
FREDERICA, on the island of St. Simon, is nearly in lat. '3191 Dorth. It ftands on an eminence, if considered with regard to the marshes before it, upon a branch of Alatamaha river, which washes the weit fide of this agreeable island, and, after several windings, difembogues itself into the tea at Jekyl sound : it forms a kind of bay before the town, and is navigable for veficis of the larget burchen, which may lie along the wharf in a secure and fale barbour.
The town of LOUISVILLE, which is designed as the future seat of government in this state, has lately been laid out on the bank of geechce siver, about 70 miles from its mouth, but is not yet built.
Ritors.] Savannah river forms a part of the divisional line, which separates this state from South Carolina. Its course is nearly from northwet to fouth-eait. Li is formed principally of two branches, by the names,
that of the islands; except that which borders on those rivers aud creeks which stretch far back into the country. On these, immediately after you leave the salts, begin the valuable rice swamps, which on cultivation, afford the present principal staple of commerce. The most of the rice lands lie on rivers, which, as far as the tide flows, are called Tide-lands, or on creeks and particular branches of water, flowing in some deeper or lower parts of the lands, which are called inland-swamps, and extend back in the country from 15 to 25 miles, beyond which very little rice is planted, though it will grow exceedingly well, as experiment has proved, 120 miles back from the sea. The intermediate lands, between these creeks and rivers, are of an inferior quality, being of a grey foil, covered chief ly with pine, and a sort of wild grass aud small reeds, which afford a large range of feeding ground for stock both summer and winter. Here and there, are interfpersed oak and hiccory ridges, which are of a better foil, and produce good crops of corn and indigo, but these are very little elevated above the circumjacent lands. The lands adjoining the rivers are nearly level, and, for' a hundred miles in a direct line from the sea, continue a breadth from 2 to 3 or 4 miles, and wherever, in that distance, you find a piece of high land that extends to the bank of the river on one fide, you may expect to find the low or swamp ground proportionably wide on the oppofite side of the river. This seems to be an invariable rule till you come to that part where the river cuts the mountains.
The foil between the rivers, after you leave the sea board and the edge of the swamps, at the distance of 20 or 30 miles, changes from a grey to a red colour, on which grows plenty of oak and hiccory, with a confiderable intermixture of pine. In some places it is gravelly, but fertile, and so continues for a number of miles, gradually decpening the redish colour of the earth, till it changes into what is called the Mulatio soil, confifiing of a black mould and red earth. The composition is darker or lighter accord, ing as there is a larger or smaller portion of the black or red earth in it, The mulatto lands are generally itrong, and yield large crops of wheat, tobacco, corn, &c. To this kind of land succeeds by turns a foil nearly black and very rich, on which grow large quantities of black walnut, mulberry &c. This succession of different foils continues uniform and regular, though there are fome large veins of all the different soils intermixed, and what is more remarkable, this succession, in the order mentioned, ftretches across this state nearly parallel with the sea coast, and extends through the several states, nearly in the same direction, to the banks of Hudson's river. In this state are produced by culture, rice, indigo, cotton, filk, (though not in large quantities) Indian corn, potatoes, oranges, figs, pomegranates, &c. Rice, at present, is the staple commodity; and as a small proportion only of the rice ground is under cultivation, the quantity railed in future must be much greater than at present. But the rapid increase of the inhabitants, chiefly by emigrations, whose attention is turned to the raising of tobacco, and the vast extent of land, with a richness of soil suited to the culture of that plant, renders it probable, that tobacco will shortly become the staple of this state.
The tobacco lands are equally well adapted to wheat, which may here. after make an important article of commerce.