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where the manners of the people, and even their language, have a differi ent tone. The land fill rises by a gradual ascent; each succeeding hil overlooks that which immediately precedes it, till, having advanced 220 miles in a north-west direction from Charleston, the elevation of the land above the sea coast is found by mensuration, to be about 800 feet. Here commences a mountainous country, which continues rising to the western terminating point of this state.
Soil and productions.). The soil may be divided into four kinds, first, the Pine-barren, which is valuable only for its timber. Interspersed among the pine-barren, are tracts of land free of timber, and of every kind of growth but that of grass. These tracts are called Savannas, constituting a second kind of soil, good for grazing. The third kind is that of the swamps and low grounds on the rivers, which is a mixture of black loam and fat clay, producing naturally canes in great plenty, cypress, bays, &c. In these swamps rice is cultivated, which constitutes the staple commodity of the state. The high-lands, commonly known by the name of oak and hiccory lands, constitute the fourth kind of soil. The natural growth is oak, hiccory, walnut, pine, and locuft. On these lands, in the low country, are cultivated, Indian corn, principally; and in the back country, besides these, they raise tobacco in large quantities, wheat, rye, barley, oats, hemp, fax, cotton, and silk *.
At the distance of about 10 miles from the sea, the river swamps for the culture of rice terminate, and the high lands extend quite to the rivers, and form banks in some places, several hundred feet high from the surface of the water, and afford many extensive and delightful views. These high banks are interwoven with layers of leaves and different colored earth, and abound with quarries of free ftone, pebbles, flint, chryf. tals, iron ore in abundance, silver, lead, sulphur and coarse diamonds.
It is curious to observe the gradations fron the sea coast to the upper country, with respect to the produce the mode of cultivation, and the cultivators. On the islands upon the sea coast, and for 40 or 50 miles back (and on the rivers much farther) the cultivators are all slaves. No white man, to speak gencrally, ever thinks of settling a farm, and improva ing it for himself without negroes. If he has no negroes, he hires himself as overseer, to fome rich planter, who has more than he can or will attend to, till he can purchase for himself. The articles cultivated, are corn and potatoes, which are food for the negroes; rice and indigo, for exportation. The foil is cultivated almost wholly by manual labor. The plough, till since the peace, was scarcely used, and prejudices ftill exist againt it. In the middle settlements negroes are not lo numerous. The master attends personally to his own business, and is glad to use the plough to aslift his negroes, or himself, when he has no negroes. The foil is not rich enough for rice. It produces moderately good indigo weed; no tobacco is raised for exportation. The farmer is contented to raise corn, potatoes, oats, poultry, and a little wheat.-In the upper country, many men have a few negroes, and a few have many; but generally speaking, the farmers have none, and depend, like the inhabitants of the
* See the nature of the fil more particularly described under this head in the description of Georgia.
northern states, upon the labor of themselves and families for subsistence, The plough is used almost wholly. Indian corn, wheat, rye, potatoes, &c. are raised for food, and large quantities of tobacco, and some wheat and indigo for exportation.
Manifatiures.] In the iniddle, and especially in the upper country, the people are obliged to manufacture their own cotton and woollen clothes, and most of their husbandry tools; but in the lower country the inhabitants for these articles depend almost entirely on their merchants. It is a fact to be lamented, that manufactures and agriculture, in this and the two adjoining states, are yet in the first stages of improveireni.
Constitution.] In 1776, a temporary form of government was agreed to by the freemen of South Carolina, asembled in congress; and on the ryth of March, 1778, it was established by an act of the legislature. By this conftitution, the legislative authority is vested in a general allembly, to contiit of two diflinct bodies, a fenate, and houfe of representatives. These two bodies, jointly by ballot, at their every firit meeting, choose a governor and lieutenant gorunor, both to continue for two years, and a privy council, (to consiit of the lieutenant-governor and eight other persons) all of the protestant religion.
The governor and lieutenant-governor must have been residents in the ftate for 10 years, and the members of the privy-council 5 years, preceding their election, and possess a freehold in the state of the value of at least ten thouíand pounds currency, clear of debt.
The governor is eligible but two years in six years, and is verled with the executive authority of the state.
The senate aré chosen by ballot, biennially, on the last Monday in November--thirteen make a quorum.
A fenator must be of the protes. tant religion-muit have attained the age of 30 years-must have been a resident in the state at least 5 years: and must possess a freehold in the parish or district for which he is elected, of at leait £.2000 currency, clear of debr.
The last Monday in November, biennially, two hundred and two perfons are to be chosen in different parts of the state, (equally proportioned to represent the freemen of the itate in the general assembly, who are to meet with the fenate, annually, at the seat of government, on the first Monday in January.
All free whitémen of 21 years of age, of one year's residence in the Kate, and possessing freeholds of 50 acrees of land each, or what shall be deemed equal thereto, are qualified to elect representatives.
Every fourteen years the representation of the whole state is to be proportioned in the most equal and just manner, according to the particular and comparative ftrength and taxable property of the different parts of the same.
All money bills for the support of government, must originate in the house of representatives, and shall not be altered or amended by the fenate, but may be rejected by them *
. Ministers of the gospel are ineligible to any of the civil offices of the ftate.
* This is in imitation of the Britis conftitution, while the reasons for this imitation do not exift.
* The power of impeaching officers of the state is vefted in the house of representatives.
The lieutenant-governor, and a majority of the privy-council, exercise the powers of a court of chancery.
Juftices of the peace are nominated by the fenate and representatives, jointly, and commissioned by the governor during pleafure.
All other judicial officers are chosen by the senate and representatives, jointly and (except the judges of the court of chancery) commiffioned by the governor during good behaviour.
All religious focieties, who acknowledge that there is one God-a future state of rewards and punishments, and that God is to be publickly worshipped, are freely tolerated.
The liberty of the press is to be preserved inviolate.
No part of this constitution is to be altered, without a notice of ninety days being previously given, nor then, without the consent of a majority of the members of the fenate and' house of representatives.
Laws.] The laws of this state have nothing in them of a particular nature, excepting what arises from the permifion of flavery. The evidence of a slave cannot be taken againft a white man, and the master who kills His flave is not punishable, otherwise than by a pecuniary mulet, and 121 months imprifonment,
In an act of this state for regulating and fixing the salaries of several officers, paffed in March 1787, it was ordered that the governor should receive a salary of
£ 900 Sterling. Foer associate judges,
373 : 6:8 Commissioners of the treasury,
8:8 Other salaries of public officers mentioned in said?
act to the amount of
State of Literature.] Gentlemen of fortune, before the late war, -sent. their fons to Europe for education. During the war and fince, they have generally sent them to the middle and northern states. Those who have been at this expence in educating their fons, have been but comparatively few in number, so that the literature of the state at a low ebb. Since the peace, however, it has begun to flourish. There are several Aourishing academies in Charleston—one at Beaufort, on Port Royal islandand several others in different parts of the state. Three colleges have lately been incorporated by law--one at Charleston, which is merely nominal-one at Winoborough, in the district of Camden--the other at Cambridge, in the distriết of Ninety-fix. The public and private donations for the support of these three colleges, were originally intended to have been appropriated jointly, for the erecting aud supporting of one respectable college. The divifion of these donations has frustrated this design. The Mount Sion college, at Winnborough, is supported by a respectable so,
ciety of gentlemen, who have long been incorporated. This inftitution flourishes, and bids fair for usefulness. The college at Cambridge is no more than a grammar school. That the literature of this state might be put upon a respectable footing, nothing is wanting but a spirit of enterprize among its wealthy inhabitants.
Indians.) The Catabaws are the only nation of Indians in this state. They have but one town, called Catabaw, situated on Catabaw river, in latitude 34° 49', on the boundary line between North and South-Carolina, and contains about 450 inhabitants, of which about 150 are fighting men.
Religion.] The people of this state, by the constitution, are to enjoy the right of electing their own pastors or clergy; and what is peculiar to this state, the minilter, when chosen, is required by the conftitution, to subscribe to the following declaration, (viz.) · That he is determined, by God's grace, out of the holy fcriptures, to instruct the people committed to his charge, and to teach nothing (as required of necessity to eternal salvation, but that which he hall be persuaded may be concluded and proved from the scripture ; that he will use both public and private admonitions, as well to the sick as to the whole, within his cure, as need shall require, and occasion shall be given, and that he will be diligent in prayers, and in reading of the holy fcriptures, and in such studies as help to the knowledge of the fame-that he will be diligent to frame his own self and family according to the doctrine of Christ, and to make both himself and them, as much as in him lieth, wholesome examples and patterns to the flock of Chrift; that he will maintain and set forward as much as he can, quietness, peace and love among all people, and especially among those that are or Thall be committed to his charge.
Since the revolution, by which all denominations were put on an equal fooring—there have been no disputes between different religious focieties. They all agree to differ.
The upper parts of this slate are settled chiefly by Presbyterians, Baptifts and Methodists. From the most probable calculations, it is supposed that the religious denominations of this state, as to numbers, may be ranked as follows: Presbyterians, including the Congregational and Independent churches-Episcopalians, Baptists, Methodists, &c.
Population and Charailer.] The best estimate of the inhabitants in this ftate which has been made, fixes their number at 80,000 white people, and as many negroes--some fay there is 120,000 negroes in this state; but no actual census has lately been made. On the sea coast there are many more Naves than freemen. The bulk of the white population is in the western parts of the state. There is no peculiarity in the manners of the inhabitants of this state, except what arises from the mischievous influence of Navery; and in this, indeed, they do not differ from the inhabitants of the other southern states. Slavery, by exempting great numbers from the necessities of labour, leads to luxury, dissipation and extravagance. The abfolute authority which is exercised over their Naves, too much favours a haughty, supercilious behaviour. A disposition to obey the christian precept, - To do to others as we would that others should do unto us,' is not cherished hy a daily exhibition of many made for one. The Carolinians Sooner arrive at maturity, both in their bodies and minds, than the natives of colder climates. They possess a natural quickness and vivacity of
genius superior to the inhabitants of the north; but too generally wáno that enterprize and perseverance, which are necessary for the highest attainments in the arts and sciences. They have, indeed, few motives to enterprize. Inhabiting a fertile country, which by the labor of the slaves, produces plentifully, and creates affluence-in a climate which favors in dulgence, ease, and a disposition for convivial pleasures, they too generally reft contented with barely knowledge enough to tranfact the common affairs of life. There are not a few instances, however, in this state, in which genius has been united with application, and the effects of their union have been happily experienced, not only by this fate, but by the United States.
The wealth produced by the labor of the Naves, furnishes their proprie tors with the means of hospitality; and no people in the world of these means with more liberality. Many of the inhabitants spare no pains nor expence in giving the highest polish of education to their children, by enabling them to travel, and by other means unattainable by those who have but moderate fortunes.
The Carolinians are generally affable and easy in their manners, and polite and attentive to ftrangers. The ladies want the bloom of the north, but have an engaging loftness and delicacy in their appearance and manners, and many of them possess the polite and elegant accomplishments.
Hunting is the most fashionable amusement in this state. At this the country gentlemen are extremely expert, and with surprising dexterity pursue their game through the woods. Theatrical exhibitions have been prohibited in Charleston Gaming of all kinds is more discountenanced among fashionable people in this, than in any of the southern states. Twice a year, ftatedly, a clais of sportive gentlemen, in this and the neighbouring states, have their horse-races. Bets of ten and fifteen hundred guineas are sometimes laid on these occasions.
There is no instance, perhaps, in which the richer class of people tref. pass more on propriety than in the mode of conducting their funerals. That a decent respect be paid to the dead, is the natural dictate of rehned humanity ; but this is not done by sumptuous and expensive entertain. ments, splendid decorations, and pompous ceremonies, which a misguided fashion has here introduced and rendered necessary. In Charleston and other parts of the state, no persons attend a funeral any more than a wedó ding, unless they are particularly invited. Wine, punch and all kinds of liquors, tea, coffee, cake, &c. in profusion, are handed round on these solemn occasions. In ihort, one would suppose that the religious proverb of the wise man, · It is better to go to the house of mourning than to the house of feasting,' would be unintelligible and wholly inapplicable here, as it would be difficult to distinguish the house of mourning from the house of feasting.
The Jews in Charleston, among other peculiarities in burying their dead, have this : After the funeral dirge is sung, and just before the corpse is deposited in the grave, the coffin is opened, and a small bag of earth, taken from the grave;
carefully put under the head of the deceased; then some powder, said to be earth brought from Jerufalem, and carefully kept for this purpose, is taken and put upon the eyes of the corpse, in token of their remembrance of the holy land, and of their expectations of returning thither in God's appointed time,