תמונות בעמוד

oaks, locuft trees of several kinds, walnut, elm, linn, and cherry treesi foine of which are three feet in diameter,

Wheat, rye, barley, oats, and flax grow well in the back hilly country. Indian corn and pulse of all kinds in all parts. Ground peas run on the surface of the earth, and are covered by hand with a light mould, and the pods grow under ground. They are caten raw or roasted, and taste much like a hazlenut, Cotton is also considerably cultivated here, and might be raised in much greater plenty. It is planted yearly : the stalk dies with the frost.

Trade.] A great proportion of the produce of the back country, confiling of tobacco, wheat, Indian corn, &c. is carried to market in SouthCarolina and Virginia. The southern interior counties carry their produce to Charleston; and the northern to Petersburg, in Virginia. The exports from the lower parts of the frate, are, tar, pitch, turpentine, rosin, Indian corn, boards, Icantling, staves, shingles, furs, tobacco, pork, Jard, tallow, bees-wax, myrtle-wax, and a few other articles. Their trade, is chiefly with the West-Indies, and the northern states. From the latter they receive flour, cheese, cyder, apples, potatoes, iron wares, cabinet wares, hats, and dry goods of all kinds imported from GreatBritain, France, and Holland, teas, &c. From the Welt-Indies, rum, fugar, and coffee.

Climate, Diseases, &c.] In the flat country near the sea coast, the inhabitants, during the summer and autumn, are subject to intermitting fevers, which often prove fatal, as bilious or nervous fymptoms prevail. These fevers are seldom immediately dangerous to the natives who are temperate, or to ftrangers who are prudent. They, however, if suffered to continue for any length of time, bring on other disorders, which greatly impair the natural vigor of the mind, debiļitate the constitution, and terminate in death. The countenances of the inhabitants, during these feasons, have generally a pale yellowish caft, occasioned by the prevalence of bilious Lymptoms. They have very little of the bloom and freshness of the people in the northern states.

It has been observed that more of the inhabitants, of the men especially, die during the winter, by pleurifies and peripneumonies, than during the warm months by bilious complaints. "These pleurisies are broughc ou by intemperance, and by an imprudent exposure to the weather. Were the inhabitants cautious and prudent in these respects, it is alledged by their physicians, that they might, in general, escape the danger of these fatal diseases. The use of flannel next to the skin is reckoned an excellent preventative, during the winter, of the diseases incident to this climate. The western hilly parts of the state are as healthy as any of the United States. That country is fertile, full of springs and rivulets of pure water. The air there is serene a great part of the year, and the inhabitants live to old age, which cannot fo generally be said of the inhabitants of the flac country. Though the days in summer are extremely hot, the nights are cool and refreshing. Autumn is very pleasant, both in regard to the temperature and serenity of the weather, and the richness and variety of the vegetable productions which the season affords. The winters are so mild in some years, that autumn may be faid to continue till spring. Wheat harvest is the beginning of June, and that of Indian corn early in September.


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Natural bitory.] The large natural growth of the plains in the low country, is almost universally pitch pine ; which is a tail, handsome tree, far superior to the pitch pine of the northern states. This tree may be called the staple commodity of North Carolina. It affords pitch, tar, tur, pentine, and various kinds of lumber, which together conttitute at leaft one-half of the exports of this state. This pine is of two kinds, the common and the long leaved. The latter has a leaf shaped like other pines, but is nearly half a yard in length, hanging in large clusters. No country produces finer white and red oak for staves. The swamps abound with cypress and hay trees. The latter is an ever-green, and is food for cattle in the winter. The leaves are shaped like those of the peach tree, but larger. The most common kinds of timber in the back country, are, oak, walnut, and pine. A species of oak grows in the moist, gravelly foil, called Black Jack. It seldom grows larger than 8 or 9 inches diameter, It is worthy of remark, that the trees in the low country, near the sea coast, are loaded with vast quantities of a long, spongy kind of moss, which, by absorbing the noxious vapour that is exhaled from ftagnated waters, contributes much, it is suppofed, to the healthiness of the climate. This hypothesis is confirmed by experience, tince it is commonly observa ed, that the country is much less healthy after having been cleared, than while in a state of nature.

The Milletoe is common in the back country. This is a Mrub which differs in kind, perhaps, from all others. It never grows out of the earth, but on the tops of trees. The roots, (if they may be so called) run under the bark of the tree, and incorporate with the wood.

It is an ever-green, resembling the garden box-wcod.

The principal wild fruits are pluinş, grapes, strawberries, and blackberries.

The country is generally covered with herbage of various kinds, and a fpecies of wild grass. It abounds with medicinal plants and roots. Among others are the ginseng, Virginia svake root, Seneca snake root, an herb of the emetic kind, like the ipecacuanha. Lyons heart, which is a sovereign remedy for the bite of a ferpent. A species of the sensitive plant is also found here ; it is a fort of brier, the stalk of which dies with the froit, but the root lives through the winter, and shoots again in the {pring. The lightest touch of a leaf causes it to turn and cling close to the stalk. Although it so easily takes the alarm, and apparently shrinks from danger, in the space of two minutes after it is touched, it perfecily recovers its former situation. The mucipula veneris is also found here. The rich bottoms are overgrown with canes. Their leaves are green all the winter, and afford an excellent food for cattle. They are of a sweetih, taste, like the stalks of green corn, which they in many respects resemble.

Religion.] The western parts of this state, which' have been settled within the last 35 years, are chiefly inhabited by Preibyterians from Pennsylvania, the descendents of people from the North of Ireland, and are exceedingly attached to the doctrines, discipline, and usages of the church of Scotland. They are a regular industrious people. Almost all the in: habitants between the Catawba and Yadkin rivers, are of this denomination, and they are in general well supplied with a sensible and learned


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ture, hitherto, have not considered that clause as binding. Probably they do not like it. Academies are established at Newbern, Salisbury, and Hillsborough. The latter has been already mentioned and described. The one at Salisbury had, in 1786, about fifty scholars, under the tuition of a worthy clergyman. It is situated in a rich, healthy country, and is flourishing.

Population, Character, Manners, and Customs,] The inhabitants of this state are reckoned at 270,000, of which 60,000 are negroes. The NorthCarolinians are moitly planters, and live from half a mile to 3 or 4 miles from each other, on their plantations. They have a plentiful country no ready market for their produce-little intercoursel with strangers, and a natural fondness for society, which induce them to be hospitable to travellers. In the lower districts the inhabitants have very few places for public and weekly worship of any kind; and these few, being deftitute of minitters, are suffered to stand neglected. The sabbath of course, which, in most civilized countries, is professionally and externally, at leaft, regarded as holy time, and which, considered merely in a civil view, is an excellent establishment for the promotion of cleanliness, friendlhip, harmony, and all the social virtues, is here generally disregarded, or disa tinguished by the convivial visitings of the white inhabitants, and the nojiy diversions of the negroes. The women, except in some of the populous towns, have very little intercourse with each other, and are almost entirely deflitute of the bloom and vivacity of the north : yet they pofsess a great deal of kindness, and, except that they suffer their infant babes to suck the breasts of their black nurses, are good mothers, and obedient wives.

The general topics of conversation among the men, when cards, the bottle, and occurrences of the day do not intervene, are negroes, the prices of indigo, rice, tobacco, &c. They appear to have as little taste for the sciences as for religion, Political enquiries, and philosophical disquisitions, are attended to but by a few men of genius and industry, and are too laborious for the indolent ininds of the pecple at large. Less attention and respect are paid to the women here, than in those parts of the United States where the inhabitants have made greater progress in the arts of civilized life Indeed, it is a truth, confirmed by observation, that in proportion to the advancement of civilization, in the same pro. portion will respect for the women be increased ; so that the progress of civilization in countries, in fates, in towns, and in families, may be marked by the degree of attention which is paid by husbands to their wives, and by the young men to the young woinen.

Temperance and industry are not to be reckoned among the virtues of the North Carolinians. The time which they waste in drinking, idling, and gambling, leaves them very little opportunity to improve their plantations or their minds. The improvement of the former is left to their overseers and negroes; the improvement of the latter is too often neg. lected. Were the time, which is thus wasted, spent in cultivating the foil, and in treasuring up knowledge, they might be both wealthy and learned; for they have a productive country, and are by no means destitute of genius. Ес

Time Time that is not employed in ftudy or useful labour, in every country. is generally spent in hurtful or innocent exercises, according to the cuftom of the place, or the taste of the parties. The citizens of NorthCarolina, who are not becter employed, spend their time in drinking, or gaming at cards or dice, in cock-fighting, or horse-racing. Many of the interludos are filled up with a boxing match ; and these matches frequently become memorable by feats of gouging *

In a country that pretends to any degree of civilization, one would hardly expect to find a prevailing cuitom of putting out the eyes of each other. Yet this more than barbarous custom is prevalent in both the Carolinas, and in Georgia, among the lower clais of people. Of the origin of this custom we are not informed. We presume there are few conpetitors for the honour of having originated it; and equally as few who are envious of the pleasure of those who have the bonour to continue

North Carolina has had a rapid growth. In the year 1910, it conmined but about 1200 fencible men. It is now, in point of numbers, the fourth face in the union. During this amazing progress in population, which has been greatly aided by emigrations from Pennsylvania, Virginia, and other states, while each has been endeavouring to increase his fortune, the human mind, like an unweeded garden, has been suffered to Thoot up in wild disorder, But when we consider that, during the late revolution, this state produced many diftinguished patriots and politicians, that the fent her thousands to the defence of Georgia and South-Carolina, and gave occafional fuccours to Virginia when we confider too the difficulties she has had to encounter from a mixture of inhabitants, col. lected from different parts, ftrangers to each other, and intent upon gain, we shall find many things worthy of praise in her general character.

Confiitution.] By the constitution of this state, which was ratified in December, 1776, all legislative authoriry is vested in two diftinct branches, both dependent on the people, viz. A Senate and House of Commons, which, when convened for business, are styled the General Assembly.

The Senate is composed of representatives, one for each county, chosen annually bw ballot.

The House of Commons consists of representatives chosen in the fame way, two for each county, and one for each of the towns of Edenton, Newbern, Wilmington, Salisbury, Hillsborough, and Halifax.

The qualifications for a senator, are one year's refidence, immediately preceding his election, in the county in which he is chosen, and 300 acres of land in fee.

* The delicate and entertaining diversion, with propriety called gouging, is thus performed. When two boxers are worried with fighting and bruiting each other, they come, as it is called, to close quarters, and each endeavours to twist his forefingers in the ear-locks of his antagonist. When these are f.ft clenched, the thumbs are extended each way to the nose, and the eyes gently turned out of their fockets. The vittor, for his expertness, receize's fronts of applanse from the sportive ibrong, while his poor eyeleis antagonijt is laag bed al for his misfortune.

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