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* The charter limits of North-Carclina are a line beginning on the sea fide, at a cedar stake, at or near the mouth of a little river, (being the fouthern extremity of Brunswick county) and running thence a north-west course through the boundary house, in lat. 33° 56' to lat. 35o, and on that parallel wejt as far as is mentioned in the charter of King Charles II, to the original proprietors of Carolina, viz. to the South Sca. Žheir northern line begins on the sea coast in lat. 36° 30', and runs due west to the termination of the fouthern line. This line strikes the Mililippi 15 miles below the mouth of the Ohio. Tbeje limits were ascertained and confirmed agreeably to an order of George II. in council in the year - Great-Britain, by the treaty of 1763, gave up her claim to all territory to the westward of the Milijappi, and the courts of France and Spain, at the same time, gave her the free navigation of the Milijippi. By the treaty of 1783, Great-Britain yielded her interest in that river to the United States. But since Spain noru claims the exclusive right of navigating the Mijfilippi, which right she had given up by the treaty of 1763 as above mentioned, North Carolina resumes ber claim to the lands beyond the Milippi, included within tbe limits of her original charter,
miles within this bar, is a hard fand shoal, called the Swash, lying across the channel. On each side of the channel are dangerous shoais, fometimes dry. There is from 8 to 9 feet water at full tide, according to the winds, on the Swash. Common tides rise 18 inches on the bar, and 10 on the Swash. Between the bar and the Swash is good anchoring ground, called the Upper and Lower Anchorages. Ships drawing 10 feet water do not come farther than the first anchorage, till lightened. Few mariners, though acquainted with the inlets, choofe to bring in their own velfels, as the bar often shifts during their absence on a voyage. North of Pamlico sound, and communicating with it, is Albemarle sound, 60 miles in length, and from 8 to 12 in breadth.
Core found lies south of Pamlico, and communicates with it. These founds are fo large when compared with their inlets from the sea, that no. tide can be perceived in any of thè rivers which empty into thein, nor is the water falt even in the mouths of these rivers.
Cape Hatteras is in lat. 350 15. In old charts the shoals of this cape are marked as having in some places only 3, 4 and 5 feet water upon them. Experienced pilots and mariners, however, now say that there is in no place, after you get two miles from the land, lefs than nine feet water. The beft channel for vessels is about a league and a half from the land at the cape, having in no place, at this distance, less than two and a half fathoms of water. Veftels from the northward, by displaying a jack from the fore top-malt, are usually boarded by a pilot from the land. Some of the pilots carry branches, and some good ones carry none. This cape has been dreaded by mariners failing southward when they have been in large vessels; for if they come within 20 miles of the land at the cape, it is in some places too shoal for them; if they stand further off they are in danger of falling into the Gulph Stream, which would set them 3 of 4 miles an hour northward. It is observable that violent storms of rain and guits of wind, are uncommonly frequent around this cape.
Cape Lookout is fouth of Cape Hatteras, opposite Core sound, and has already been mentioned as having had an excellent harbour entirely filled up with land since the year 1777.
Cape Fear is remarkable for a dangerous shoal, called, from its forin, the Frying-pan. This shoal lies at the entrance of Cape Fear river.
Dijmal Swamp spreads over the whole tract of country which lies between Pamlico and Albemarle founds, and needs no other description than is conveyed by its name. There is another large swamp north of Edenton, which lies partly in this state, and partly in Virginia.
This swamp is owned by two companies; the Virginia company, of which General Washington is a member, hold 100,000 acres; and tho North-Carolina company, who hold about 40,000 acres. It is in contemplation to cut a canal through this swamp, from the head of Parques tank, to the head of Elizabeth river, in Virginia, 12 or 14 miles in length,
Čivil Divifons.] This fate is divided into 8 districts which are fuss divided into 58 counties, as follows:
Principal Towns.] Newbern, Edenton, Wilmington, Halifax, Hillborough and Fayetteville, cach in their turns have been considered as the capital of the state. At present they have no capital. The convention which met to consider the new conftitution, fixed on a place in Wake county to be the seat of government, but the town is not yet built.
NEWBern is the largest town in the state. It stands on a fat, sandy point of land, formed by the confluence of the rivers Neus on the north, and Trent on the south. Opposite the town, the Neus is about a mile and a half, and the Trent three quarters of a mile wide. The town contains about 400 houses, all built of wood, excepting the palace, the church, the gaol and two dwelling houses, which are of brick. The palace is a build. ing erected by the province before the revolution, and was formerly the residence of the governors. It is large and elegant, two stories high, with
two wings for offices, a little advanced in front towards the town; these wings are connected with the principal building by a circular arcade.
This once handsome and well furnished building is now much out of repair. One of the halls is used for a dancing, and another for a school room - which are the only present uses of this palace. The arms of the king of Great-Britain still appear in a pediment in front of the building. The Episcopal church is a small brick building, with a bell. It is the only house for public worship in the place. A rum distillery has been lately erected in this town. It is the county town of Craven county, and has a courthouse and goal. The court-house is raised on brick arches, so as to render the lower part a convenient market-place; but the principal marketing is done with the people in their canoes and boats at the river side.
Edenton is fituated on the north fide of Albemarle found, and has about uso indifferent wood houses, and a few handsome buildings. It has a brick church for Episcopalians, which for many years has been much neglected, and serves only to thew that the people once had a regard, at least, for the externals of religion. Its local situation is advantageous for trade, but not for health. It is the county town of Chowan county, and has a court-house and goal. In or near this town lived the proprietory, and the firft of the royal governors.
WILMINGTON is a town of about 180 houses, situated on the east fide of the eastern branch of Cape Fear river, 34 miles from the sea. The course of the river, as it pases by the town, is from north to fouth, and is about 150 yards wide.
In 1786, a fire broke out, supposed to have been kindled by negroes, and consumed about 25 or 30 houses. The town is rebuilding slowly. A printing-office was established here in 1788.
WASHINGTON and TARBOROUGH are two flourishing, trading towns on Tar river. About 130 small vessels enter annually at the cuttomhouse for this river.
HILLSBOROUGH is an inland town, situated in a high, healthy, and fertile country, 180 miles north of the west from Newbern. It is settled by about 60 or 70 families, and has an academy of 60 or 80 students, under the care of suitable instructors, and patronized by the principal gentlemen in the state, who have been liberal in their donations."
Face of the Country, Soil, and Produ&tions.] North-Carolina, in its whole width, for 60 miles from the sea, is a dead level. A great proportion of this tract lies in forest, and is barren. On the banks of some of the rivers, particularly of the Roanoke, the land is fertile and good. Interspersed through the other parts, are glades of rich swamp, and ridges of oak land, of a black, fertile soil. In all this champagne country, marine productions are found by digging 18 or 20 feet below the surface of the ground. The sea coait, the sounds, inlets, and lower parts of the rivers, have uniformly a muddy, soft bottom. Sixty and eighty miles from the sea, the country rises into hills and mountains, as described under this bead in South-Carolina and Georgia.
That part of North Carolina which lies west of the mountains, a tract about 500 miles in length, east and welt, and upwards of ioo in breadth, (except the Cumberland barrens, and some broken lands) is a fine fertile country, watered by the broad Tennessee, and abounds with