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also, about the same time built forts at Chester, Elsinburgh, and other places. John Printz then governed the Swedes, who, in 1654, deputed his son-in-law, John Papgoia, and returned to Sweden. Papgoia foon followed his father-in-law to his native country, and John Ryling fucceeded to the government.

In 1655, the Dutch, under the command of Peter Stuyvesant, arrived in Delaware river, from New-Amsterdam (now New-York) in seven vessels, with 6 or 700 men. They dispoflefled the Swede: of their forts on the river, and carried the officers and principal inhabitants prisoners to New-Amiterdam, and from thence to Holland. The common people submitted to the conquerors and remained in the country:

On the first of October, 1664, Sir Robert Carr obtained the submirfion of the Swedes on Delaware river. Four years after, Col. Nicolls, governor of New York, with his council, on the 21st of April, appointed a feout and five other persons, to allilt Capt. Carr in the government of the

country. In 1672, the town of Newcastle was incorporated by the government of New-York, to be governed by a bailiff and fix assistants; after the first year, the four oldest were to leave their office and four others to be chofen. The bailiff was president, with a double vote; the constable was chosen by the bench. They had power to try caufes not exceeding ten pounds, without appeal. The office of scout was converted into that of theriff, who had jurisdiction in the corporation and along the river, and was annually chosen. They were to have a free trade, without being obliged to make entry at New-York, as had formerly been the practice.

Wampum was, at this time, the principal currency of the country. Governor Lovelace, of New York, by proclamation, ordered that four white grains and three black ones, should pass for the value of a stiver os penny. This proclamation was published at Albany, Esopus, Delaware, Long-Island, and the parts adjacent,

In 1674, Charles II. by a second patent, dated June 29th, granted to his brother, duke of York, all that country called by the Dutch Noce Netherlands, of which the three counties of Newcaitle, Kent, and Suflex were a part.

In 1683, the duke of York, by deed, dated August 24th, fold to William Penn the town of Newcaitle, with the district of 12 miles round the same ; and by another deed, of the same date, granted to him the remainder of the territory, which, till the revolution, was called the Three Lower C:unties, and has since been called the Delaware State. Till 1776, these three counties were considered as a part of Pennsylvania, in matters of government. The same governor presided over both, but the assembly and courts of judicature were different : different as to their constituent members, but in form nearly the faine.

MARY

M

A RYL

A N D.

{

SITUATION and EXTÉNT.
Miles.
Length 134

Between

} Breadth 110

37° 56' and 39° 44' North Latitude.

oo and 4° 30' Welt Longitude. Boundaries.]

Delaware State ; south-east and south, by the Atlantic Ocean, and a line drawn from the ocean over the peninsula (dividing it from Accomac county in Virginia) to the mouth of Patomák river: thence up the Patomak to its first fountain; thence, by a due north line, till it interfiets the fouthern boundary of Pennsylvania, in lat. 39o 43 18", so that it has Virginia on the fouth, south-west, and west. It contains about 14,000 square miles, of which about one-fixth is water.

Civil Divisions.] Maryland is divided into 18 counties, 10 of which are on the western, and 8 on the aftern shore of Chesapeek-Bay. These, with their population in 1782, are as follows:

Free males abovel
18 years of age.

83,362

Numb. of white

inhabitants.

65ru1{

Counties.

Total

1598

St. Mary's, 1173 8,459 + Somerset,

7,787 Calvert

89+

4,012 Montgomery,

2160 10,011 Wathington,

2579 11,488 + Queen Ann's, 1742 7,767 † Caroline,

1293

6,230 + Kent,

1394

6,165 Charles,

Z11S 9,804 + Talbot,

6,744 + Dorchester,

1828

8,927 Baltimore,

3165 17,8781 Ann Arundel, 2229

9,370 + Worcester,

733 8,561 Harford,

2243 9,377 + Cæcil,

2000

7,749 Frederick,

3785 20,495 Prince George's, 2259

Tota! | 35,268,170,6881 N. B. Those counties marked ( + ) are on the eait, the rest are on the weit lide of the Chefapeck-Bay.

Each

27,626
13,399
16,246
13,832

12,2

age.
Number of Negroes in the State of Maryland, taken by the

feveral affefiors, in March, 1782.
Males and females, from 8 to 14 years of age,

of
Negroes under 8 years of age,

Males from 14 to 45 years of age,
Females from 14 to 36 years of age,
Males above 45 years

Females above 36 years of age,
do,

14;8

9,864

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Each of the counties fends four Representatives to the House of Ded legates, besides which the city of Annapolis, and town of Baltimore, fend each two, making in the whole 76 members.

Climate.] Generally mild and agreeable, fuited to agricultural productions, and a great variety of fruit trees. In the interior hilly country the inhabitants are healthy ; but in the fiat country, in the neighbourhood of the marshes and Itagnant waiers, they are, as in the other southern ftates, subject to intermittents.

Bays and Rivers.) Chesapeek Bay, as we have already hinted, dirides this itate into the caitern and weitern divisions. This Bay, which is the largest in the United-States, was particularly described, page 47. It affords several good fisheries; and, in a commercial view, is of immenfe advantage to the state. It receives a number of the largest rivers in the United States. From the eastern shore in Maryland, among ocher smaller ones, it receives Pokomoke, Choptank, Chetter, and Elk rivers. From the north the rapid Susquehannah ; and from the wcft, Patapfco, Severn, Patuxent and Patomak, half of which is in Maryland, and half in Virginia. Except the Susquehannah and l'atomak, 'thefe are small rivers. Parapsco river is but about 30 or 40 yards wide at the ferry, juft before it empties into the bafon upon which Baltimore stands. Its source is in York county, in Pennsylvania. Its course fouthwardly, till it reaches Elkridge landing, about 8 miles westward of Baltimore; it then turns eastward, in a broad bay. like tlream, by Baltimore, which it leaves on the north, and paffes into the Chesapeek.

The entrance into Baltimore harbour, alvout a mile belo:v Fell's-Point, is hardly pistol-tot across, and of course may be eafily defended againit naval force.

Severn is a short, inconsiderable river, passing by Annapolis, which it leaves to the fouth, emptying, by a broad mouth, into the ChefspeekBay.

Patuxent is a larger river than the Patapsco. It rises in Ann Arundel county, and runs fouth eastwardily, and then cast into the bay, 15 or 20 miles north of the mouth of Patomak. There are several finall rivers, fuch as Wighcocomico, Eaftern Branch, Monocaly, and Concgocheagne, which empty into Patomak river, from the Maryland side.

Face of the Country, Soil, and Productions.] East of the blue ridge of mountains, which itretches across the western part of this ftate, the land, like that in all the southern states, is generally level and free of stones ;, and appears to have been made much in the same way ; of course the foil must be similar, and the natural growth not noticeably different.

The foil of the good land in Maryland, is of such a nature and quality as to produce from 12 to 16 bushels of wheat, or from 20 to 30 bushels of Indian corn per acre. Ten bushels of whcat, and 15 buihels of corn per acre, may be the annual average crops in the Itate at large.

Wheat and tobacco are the staple coirimmodities of Maryland. Tobacco is generally cultivated by negroes, in fetts, in the following manner: The feed is sowed in beds of line mould, and transplanted the beginning of May. The plants are set at the distance of 3 or 4 feet from each other, and are hilled and kept continually free of weeds.

When as many leaves have not out as the foil will nourish to advantage, the top of the

plant

plant is broken off, which prevents its growing higher. It is carefully kept clear of worms, and the fuckers, which put out between the leaves, are taken off at proper times, till the plant arrives at perfection, which is in Auguft. When the leaves turn of a brownish colour, and begin to be {potted, the plant is cut down and hanged up to dry, after having sweated in heaps one night. When it can be handled without crumbling, which is always in moist weather, the leaves are stripped from the stalk, tied in bundles, and packed for exportation in hogsheads containing 8 or 900 pounds. No fuckers nor ground leaves are allowed to be merchantable. An industrious person may manage 6000 plants of tobacco, (which yield 1000 lb.) and four acres of Indian corn.

In the interior country, on the uplands, considerable quantities of hemp and fax are raised. As long ago as 1751, in the month of October, no less than 60 waggons, loaded with flax seed, came down to Baltimore from the back country.

Among other kinds of timber is the oak of several kinds, which is of a strait grain, and easily rives into staves, for exportation. The black walnut is in demand for cabinets, tables, and other furniture. The apples of this state are large, but mealy; their peaches plenty and good. From these the inhabitants diftil cyder brandy and peach brandy.

The forests abound with nuts of various kinds, which are collectively called Maft. On this Malt vast numbers of swine are fed, which run wild in the woods. These swine, when fatted, are caught, killed, barrelled and exported in great quantities. Douglas says, that in the year 1733, which was a good mafting year, one gentleman, a planter and merchant, in Virginia, falted up 3000 barrels of pork.'

Population and Character.] The population of this state is exhibited in the foregoing table. By that it appears that the number of inhabitants in the state, including the negroes, is 254,050; which is 18 for every square mile. The inhabitants, except in the populous towns, live on their plantations, often several miles distant from each other. To an inhabitant of the middle, and especially of the eastern states, which are thickly populated, they appear to live very retired and unsocial lives. The effects of this comparative solitude are visible in the countenances, as well as in the manners and dress of the country people. You observe very little of that chearful sprightliness of look and action which is the invariable and genuine offspring of social intercourse. Nor do you find that attention paid to dress, which is common, and which decency and propriety have rendered necessary, among people who are liable to receive company almost every day. Unaccustomed, 'in a great measure, to these frequent and friendly visits, they often suffer a negligence in their dress which borders on Novenliness. There is apparently a disconfolate wildness in their countenances, and an indolence and inactivity in their whole behaviour, which are evidently the effects of solitude and lavery. As the negroes perform all the manual labour, their masters are left to faunter away life in floth, and too often in ignorance. These observations, however, muít in justice be limited to the people in the country, and to those particularly, whose poverty or parlimony prevents their spending a part of their time in populous towns, or otherwise mingling with the world. And with these limitations they will equally apply to all the

fouthern

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fonchern states. The inhabitants of the populous towns, and those from the country who have intercourse with them, are in their manners and cuftoms like the people of the other states in like situations.

That pride which grows on slavery, and is habitual to those who, from their infancy, are taught to believe and to feel their superiority, is a visible characteristic of the inhabitants of Maryland. But with this characteristic we must not fail to connect that of hospitality to strangers, which is equally universal and obvious, and is, perhaps, in part, the offspring of it. The inhabitants are made up of various nations of

many

different religious sentiments; few general observations, therefore, of a characteristical kind will apply.

Chief Towns.] ANNAPOLIS (city) is the capital of Maryland, and the wealthiest town of its fize in America. It is situated juft at the month of Severn river, 30 miles south of Baltimore. It is a place of little note in the commercial world. The houses, about 260 in number, are generally large and elegant, indicative of great wealth. The design of those who planned the city, was to have the whole in the form of a circle, with the streets, like radii, beginning at the center where the Stadt House stands, and thence diverging in every direction. The principal part of the buildings are arranged agreeably to this awkward plan.

The Stadt House is the noblest building of the kind in America.

BALTIMORE has had the most rapid growth of any town in the continent, and is the fourth in size and the fifth in trade in the United States *. It lies in lat. 39° 21', on the north side of Patapsco river, around what is called the Bason, in which the water, at common tides, is about five or six feet deep. Baltimore is divided into the town and Fell's Point by a creek, over which are two bridges; but the houses extend, in a sparse situation, from one to the other. At Fell's Point the water is deep enough for ships of burden ; but small vessels only go up to the town. The lituation of the town is low, and was formerly unhealthy ; but the increase of houses, and of course of smoke, the tendency of which is to destroy or to dispel damp and unwholesome vapours, and the improvements that have been made, particularly that of paving the streets, have rendered it tolerably healthy. The houses were numbered in 1787, and found to be 1955; about 1200 of which were in the town, and the rest at Fell's Point. The number of stores was 152, and of churches nine; which belong to German Calvinists and Lutherans, Epifcopalians, Presbyterians, Roman Catholics, Baptists, Methodists, Quakers, Nicolites, or New Quakers. The number of inhabitants is between 10 and 11,000. Not more than one in five of these attend public worship of any kind, notwithstanding they have such a variety in their choice. Their main object (in which, indeed, they are far from being peculiar) appears to be to make their fortunes for this world ; while preparation for another is either unthought of, or deferred to a more convenient season. There are many very respectable families in Baltimore, who live genteely-are hof

* In point of size, the towns in the United States may be ranked in this or. der; Philadelphia, New-York, Boston, Baltimore, Charleston, &c. In point of trade, New-York, Philadelphia, Bofion, Charleton, Baltimore, &c.

pitable

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