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GOVERNORS, and Presidents of the Province, with the times of their respective Administrations.

I be Honourable William Penn, born 1644, died 1718.

John Penn,
Thomas Penn,
Richard Penn,
John Penn,

died 1746.

died 1771.


GOVERNORS, &c. Governor, William Penn, Proprietor, from Oct. 1682, to Aug. 1684. Prefident, Thomas Lloyd,

Aug. 1684, to Dec. 1688. Lt.-Governor, John Blackwell,

Dec. 1688, to Feb. 1689-90. President and Cour.cil governed, Feb. 1689-90, to April 26, 1693. Governor, Be jamin Fletcher,

26 April, 1693, to 3 June, 1693. Lt.-Governor, William Markham, 3 June, 1693, to Dec. 1699. Governor, William Penn, Proprietor, 3 Dec. 1699, to i Nov. 1701. Lt.-Governor, Andrew Hamilton, i Nov. 1701, to Feb. 1702-3. President and Council governed,

Feb. 1702-3, to Feb. 1703-4. Lt.-Governors, John Evans,

Feb. 1703-4, to Feb. 1708-9.
Charles Gookin, March, 1708-9, to

Sir William Keith, Bart. 1717 to June, 1726.
Patrick Gordon,
June, 1726

1736. George Thomas,

1738 to

1747. Prefident, Anthony Palmer,

1747 to Lt.-Governors, James Hamilton,

1748 to Cat.

1754. Robert Hunter Morris, OA. 1754, to 19 Aug. 1756. William Denny,

19 Aug. 1756, to 19 Nov. 1759. James Hamilton, 17

Nov. 1759, to 31 Oct. 1;63. John Penn,

31 Çet, 1763, to 6 May, 1771.
President, James Hamilton, 6 May, 1771, to 16 Oct. 1771.
Lt.-Governor, Richard Penn,

Thomas Wharton, March, 1777, to April, 1778.
Jof ph Reed,

Oat, 1778, to Oct. 1781.
William Moore,

Nov. 1781, to Nov. 1782. John Dickinson,

Nov. 1782, to Oct, 1785. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, Oct. 1785, to Oct, 1788. Thomas Milliin,

Oct. 1988.


16 Oct, 1771.




Miles. Length 92 Breadth 16


38° 30' and 40° North Latitude.
o and 1° 45 Welt Longitude.

Boundaries.] Bovides it from : Pennfylvania ; caft, by Delaware river

, and Bay; fouth, by a due east and west line, from Cape Henlopen, in lat. 38zó' to the middle of the peninsula, which line divides the state

from Worcester county in Maryland; weit, by Maryland, from which · it is divided by a line drawn from the western termination of the southern

boundary line, northwards up the said peninsula, till it touch or form a tangent to the western part of the periphery of the above-mentioned territorial circle: containing about 1400 square miles.

Climate.] In many parts unhealthy. The land is generally low and Aat, which occasions the waters to stagnate, and the consequence is, the inhabitants are subject to intermittents.

Civil Divisions.] The Delaware state is divided into three counties, viz. Counties.

Chief Towns,

Wilmington and Newcastle,


Milford and Lewistown. Rivers.] Choptank, Nanticok and Pocomoke, all have their sources in this state, and are navigable for vessels of so or 60 tons, 20 or 30 miles into the country. They all run a westwardly course into Chelapeek Bay. The eastern side of the state, along, Delaware bay and river, is indented with a great number of small creeks, but none considerable enough to merit a description.

Soil and Productions.] The south part of the state is a low flat country, and a considerable portion of it lies in forest. What is under cultivation is chiefly barren, except in Indian corn, of which it produces fine crops. In some places rye and flax may be raised, but wheat is a foreigner in these parts. Where nature is deficient in one resource, she is generally bountiful in another. This is verified in the tall, thick forests of pines, which are manufactured into boards, and exported in large quantities into every sea-port in the three adjoining states.-As you proceed north the soil is more fertile, and produces wheat in large quantities, which is the staple commodity of the state. They raise all the other kinds of grain common to Pennsylvania. The state has no mountain in it, ex

* The Territorial Line, so called, is a circle described with a radius of 12 English miles, and whole centre is in the middle of the town of New caftle,


eept Thander Hill, in the western part of Newcastle county, and is gezerally level, except some small parts, which are ftony and uneven.

Chief Towns.] Dever, in the county of Kent, is the seat of gorernment. It itands on Joncs'creek, a few miles from the Delaware river, and consists of about 100 houses, principally of brick. Four streets intersect each other at right angles, in the center of the town, whose incidencies form a spacious parade, on the east side of which is an elegant ftate-bouse of brick. The town has a lively appearance, and drives on a considerable trade with Philadelphia. Wheat is the principal article of export. The landing is five or fix miles from the town of Dover.

NEWCASTLE is 35 miles below Philadelphia, on the west bank of De. laware river. It was first settled by the Swedes, about the year 1627, and called Stockholm. It was afterwards taken by the Dutch, and called New Amberdam. When it fell into the hands of the English, it was called by its present name. It contains about 60 houses, which have the aspect of decay, and was formerly the seat of government. This is the first town that was settled on Delaware river.

WILMINGTON is situated a mile and a half west of Delaware river, on Christiana crcek, 28 miles southward from Philadelphia. It is much the largest and pleasanteft town in the state, containing about 400 houses, which are handiomely built upon a gentle afcent of an eminence, and fhow to great advantage as you fail up the Delaware.

Besides other public buildings, there is a flourishing academy of about 40 or so scholars, who are taught the languages, and some of the sciences, by an able instructor. This academy, in proper time, is intended to be erected into a college. There is another academy at Newark, in this county, which was incorporated in 1769, and then had 14 trustees.

MILFORD, the little emporium of Susiex county, is situated at the source of a small river, 15 miles from Delaware bay, and 150 fouthward of Philadelphia. This town, which contains about 80 houses, has been built, except one house, since the revolution. It is laid out with much taste, and is by no means disagreeable. The inhabitants are Episcopalians, Quakers and Methoditts.

Duck CREEK, is 12 miles north-west from Dover, and has about 60 houses, which fand on one ítreet. It carries on a considerable trade with Philadelphia—and certainly merits a more pompous name. A mile fout from this is fituated Governor Collins's plantation. His house, which is large and elegant, ftands a quarter of a mile from the road, and has a pleasing effect upon the eye of the traveller.

Trade.] 'The trade of this state, which is inconsiderable, is carried on principally with Philadelphia, in boats and Mallops. The articles exported a re principally wheat, corn, lumber and hay.

Religion.] There are, in this ftate, 21 Prefbyterian congregations, belonging to the Synod of Philadelphia-Seven Epifcopal churches-Six congregations of Baptitis, containing about 218 fouls--Four congrezations of the people called Quakers; besides a Swedish church at Wil. mington, which is one of the oldest churches in the United States, and a number of Methodists. All these denominations have free toleration by the conftitution, and live together in harmony,


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Psylation and Charader.] In the convention held at Philadelphia, in the summer of 1787, the inhabitants of this state were reckoned at 37,000, which is about 26 for every square mile. There is no obvious characteristical difference between the inhabitants of this state and the Pennsylvanians.

Confitution. At the revolution, the three lower counties on Delaware became independent by the name of The Delaware State. Under their prefent conftitution, which was established in September, 1776, the legislature is divided into two distinct branches, which together are stiled The General Assembly of Delaware. One branch, called the Houfe of 4Jembly, consists of feven representatives from each of the three counties, chofen annually by the freeholders. The other branch, called the Cous cil, confiits of nine members, three for a county, who must be more than twenty-five years of age, chosen likewise by the freeholders. A rotation of members is establiihed by displacing one member for a county at the end of every year.

All money bills must originate in the house of assembly, but they may be altered, amended or rejected by the legislative council*

A president or chief magiftrate is chosen by the joint ballot of both houses, and continues in office three years; at the expiration of which period, he is ineligible the three fucceediog years. If iris office becomes vacant during the recess of the legislacure, or he is unable to attend to business, the speaker of the legislative council is vice president for the time; and in his absence, the powers of the president devolve upon the (peaker of the assembly.

A privy council, consisting of four members, two from each house, chosen by ballot, is conftituted to affift the chief magistrate in the adminiftration of the

government. The three juftices of the supreme court, a judge of admiralty, and four justices of the common pleas and orphans courts, are appointed by the joint ballot of the president and general assembly, and commissioned by the president-to hold their offices during good behaviour. The prefident and privy council appoint the secretary, the attorney-general, regitters for the probate of wills, registers in chancery, clerks of the com

* The firft part of this claufe is found in several of the American conftitutions, and

seems to bave been servilely copied from the practice of originating money bills in the British house of commons. In Great Britain this is deemed a privilege, and yet it is difficult to discover the privilege, while the house of Commons have a negative upon all bills whatever. But in America, where the property of bath houses is taxed alike, and the men who compose them are, at different fons, changed from one house to the other, there seems to be not a foow of reason for giving one branch the exclusive privilege of originating money

bills. To prove with how little reafon this article of the constitution is introduced in America, it might be useful to read a fort history of ihe customo in the parliament of Great-Britain-n custom introduced merely for the nience of doing business. For this useful piece of history, the reader is referred to the American Magazine, published in New York, 1788, by Noah Webfer, Esquire, No.VII. page 456.


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mon pleas, and orphans courts, and clerks of the peace, who hold their offices during five years, unless sooner removed for mal-conduct.

The house of alleinbly name twenty-four persons in each county for justices of peace, from which sumber the president, with the advice of his council, appoints and conimillons twelve, who serve for seven years, unless sooner dismissed for mal-administration. The members of the legislative and privy councils are justices of the peace for the whole ftate.

The courts of comaron pleas and orplans courts have power to hold chancery courts in certain cales.

The clerk of the supreme court is appointed by the chief justice, and the recorders of deeds, by the justices of the common pleas, for five

years, unless sooner dismisled.

All the military and marine officers are appointed by the general afíembly.

The Court of Appeals consists of seven persons—the president, who is a member, and presides by virtue of his office, and fix others, three to be chosen by the legislative council, and three by the house of assembly. To this court appeals lie from the supreme court, in all matters of law and equity. The judges hold their office during good behaviour.

The justices of the feveral courts, the members of the privy council, secretary, trustees of the loan office, clerks of the common pleas, and all persons concerned in army or navy contracts, are ineligible to either house of assembly. Every member, before taking his seat, must take the oath of allegiance, and subscribe a religious teit, declaring his belief in God the Father, in Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghoft; and in the inSpiration of the Scriptures.

The house of affembly have the privilege of impeaching delinquent of ficers of government, and impeachments are to be prosecuted by the attorney-general, or other perfon appointed by the assembly, and tried before the legislative council. The punishment may extend to temporary or perpetual disability to hold offices under government, or to such other penalties as the laws shall direct.

There is, in Delaware, no establishment of one religious fect in preference to another, nor can any preacher or clergyman, while in his paftosal employment, hold any civil office in the state.

History.] The Dutch, under the pretended purchase made of Henry Hudion*, took possession of the lands on both lides the river Delaware'; and as early as the ycar 1623, built a fort at the place, which has fince been called Gloucester.

In 1627, by the influcnce of William Useling, a respectable merchant in Sweden, a colony of Swedes and Finns came over, furnished with all the necessaries for beginning a new settlement, and landed at Cape Henlopen; at which time the Dutch had wholly quitted the country. The Dutch, however, returned in 1630, and built a fort at Lewistown, by them named Hoaşkill. The year following the Swedes built a fort near Wilinington, which they called Christein or Christiana. Here also they laid out a small town, which was afterwards demolished by the Dutch. The same year they erected a fort higher up the river, upon Tenecum iland, which they called New Gottenburgh; they * See history of New York,


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