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is conjectured that pits were sunk in a number of places, and lightly covered over, so as to decoy the assailants in case of an attack, and defeat their attempts in sturming the works. The entrenchment only remains ; but it appears to have been formerly stockaded. The Indians are entirely ignorant of the origin of these works, but suppose they were erected by the Spanish Indians. The hill is an excellent itation for a fort, and commands a delightful view of the country around it, which is low and fertile. There is a fortification, of a similar kind, at Unadilla, in the flat lands.

Confitution.] By the prefent conftitution of Pennsylvania, which was established in September, 1776, all legislative powers are lodged in a fingle body of men, which is stiled • The general assembly of representatives of the friemen of Pennsylvania.' The qualification required to render a perfon eligible to this allembly is, two years residence in the city or county for which he is chosen; no member of the house can hold any other office, except in the militia.

The qualifications of the electors, are, full age, and one year's residence in the state, with payment of public taxes during that time. But the sons of freeholders are intitled to vote for representatives, without any qualification, except full age.

No man can be elected as a member of the assembly more than four years in leven.

The representatives are chosen annually on the second Tuesday in October, and they meet on the fourth Monday of the same month. A quorum of the house confifts of two thirds of the whole number of members elected ; and the members, before they take their feats, are obliged to take an oath or affirmation of fidelity to the state; and also fob scribe a declaration or teft, acknowledging their belief in one God, and the inspiration of the scriptures of the Old arid New Testament. The house chuse their own speaker, who, in the tranfaction of business, never leaves the chair. A journal of the proceedings of the assembly is published regularly, and any member may insert the reasons of his vote upon the minutes of the house. To prevent hafty determinations on matters of importance, all bills of a public nacure are printed before the last teading, and, except in cases of neceility, are not paffed into laws before the next session. The power of impeachment is vefted in the general affenbly.

The supreme executive power is lodged in a president, and a council confitting of a member from each county. The president is elected annually by the joint ballot of the assembly and council, and from the members of council. A vice president is chosen at the same time. . .

The counsellors are chosen by the freemen, every third year, and having ferved three years, they are ineligible for the four succeeding years. The appointments of one third only of the members expire every year, by which rotation no more than one third can be new members. A counsellor is, by his office, a justice of the peace for the whole state. The president and council forn a court for the trial of impeachments.

The council meet at the same time and place with the general affembly.

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* A large debt was due from the crown to Mr. Penn, a part of which be offered to remit, on condition he obtained his grant. This, whatever bene vodent motives are held out to the world, must have been a principal consideration quit be be king in making the grant.

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and and the lands south to the Hoarkills. In December following, Mr. Penn effected an union of the lower counties with the province of Pennsylvania *.

The firit frame of government for Pennsylvania is dated in 1682. By this form, all legifiative powers were veftes in the governor and freemea of the province, in the form of a provincial council, and a general asiem, bly. The council was to confiit of seventy-two members, chofen by the freemen ; of which the governor, or his deputy, was to be perpetual pre. sident, with a treble vote, One-third of this council went out of office every year, and their seats were supplied by new elections,

The general assembly was at firit to confift of all the freemen-after: wards of two hundred, and never to exceed five hundred.

In 1683, Mr. Penn offered another frame of government, in which the number of representatives was reduced, and ihe governor vested with a negative upon all bilis palled in assembly. By several specious arguments, the people were persuaded to accept this frame of goveroment.

Not long after, a dispute between Mr. Penn and Lord Baltimore required the former to go to England, and he committed the administration of government to five commisioners, taken from the ecuncil. In 1686, Mir, Penn required the commillioners to disolve the frame of game vernment ; but not being able to effect his purpose, he, in 168, appointed Capt. John Blackwell his depury. From this period, the proprietors usually reided in England, and adıninistered the government by deputies, who were devoted to their interest. Jealousies arose between the people and their governors, which never ceafod till the late revolution. The primary cause of these jealousies, was an attempt of the proprietary to extend his own power, and abridge that of the afiembly ; and the consequence was incesant disputes and difensions in the legislature.

In 1689, governor Blackwell, finding himself opposed in his views, had recourse to artifice, and prevailed on certain members of the council to withdraw themfelves from the house; thus defeating the measures of the legislature t. The house voted this to be treachery, and addreffed the governor on the occasion.

In 1693, the king and queen assumed the government into their own hands. Col. Fletcher was appointed governor of New York and Penn, sylvania by one and the fame commillion, with equal powers in both provinces. By this commiftion, the number of counsellors in Pennfytvania was reduced.

Under the administration of governor Markham in 1696, a new form of government was establihed in Pennsylvania. The election of the council and assembly now became annual, and the legiflature, with their powers and forms of proceeding, was new modelled.

In 1699, the proprietary arrived from England, and affumed the reins of government. While he remained in Pennsylvania, the laft cbarter of privileges, or frame of government, which continued till the revolution,

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* See Franklin's historical reciczu of the conftitution and government of Pennsylvania, page 14.

+ Two instances of a feceflion of members from the assembly, with fimilar views, bave taken place fince the re-vulntion, and joen to have been copied from this example in 1689.


was agreed upon and established. This was comp'eted and delivered to the people by the proprietary, October 28, 110, juft on his embarking for England. The inhabitants of the territory, as it was then called, or the lower counties, refused to accept this chaster, and thus feparated themselves from the province of Pennfylvania. They afterwards had their own afsembly, in which the governor of Pennsylvania used to prefide.

In September, 1700, the Susquehannah Indians granted to Mr. Penn all their lands on both fides the river. The Susquehannah, Shawanefe, and Patomak Indians, however, entered into articles of agrecient with Mr. Penn, by which, on certain conditions of peaceable and friendly behaviour, they were permitted to settle about the head of Patomak, in the province of Pennsylvania. The Conostoga chiefs alo, in 1701, ratified the grant of the Susquehannah Indians, made the preceding year.

in 1908, Mr. Penn obtained from the Sachems of the country, a confirmation of the grants made by former Indians, of all the lands froin Duck creek, to the mountains, and from the Delaware to the Sufquchannah. In this deed the Sachems declared, that they had seen and heard read divers prior deeds which had been given to Mr. Penn, by former chiefs.

While Mr. Penn was in America, he erected Philadelphia into a corporation. The charter was dated October 25, 1701, by which the police of the city was vested in a mayor, recorder, aldermen, and .commons council, with power to enquire into treasons, murders, and other felonies; and to enquire into and punish smaller crimes. The corporation had also extenlive civil jurisdiction; but it was diffolved at the late revolution, and Philadelphia is governed like other counties in the state.

By tlie favourable terms which Mr. Funn oifered to settlers, and an unlimited toleration of all religious denoninations, the population of the province was extremely rapid. Notwithstanding the attempts of the proprietary, or his governors, to extend his own power, and accumulate property by procuring grants from the people, and exempting his lands from taxation, the government was generally mild, and the burdens of the people by no means oppressive. The selfish designs of the proprietaries were vigorously and constantly opposed by the affembly, whole firmness preserved the charter rights of the province.

At the revolution, the government was abolished. The proprietaries were absent, and the people by their representatives formed a new conftitution on republican principles. The proprietaries were excluded from all thare in the government, and the legislature offered them one hundred and thirty thousand pounds in licu of all quit rents, which was finally accepted. The proprietaries, however, still potless in Pennsylvania many large tracts of excellent land.

It is to be regretted, that among all the able writers in this important ftate, none has yet gratified the public with its intereiting history. As therefore history is not professedly the province of a geographer, a more particular detail of historical facts, than has already be:n given, will not be expected. We shall therefore conclude the history of Pennsylvania with the following list of governors.

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