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is conjectured that pits were funk in a number of places, and lightly covered over, so as to decoy the assailants in case of an attack, and defeat their attempts in sturming the works. The entrenchment only remains ; but it appears to have been formerly stockaded. The Indians are entirely ignorant of the origin of these works, but fuppose they were erected by the Spanish Indians. The hill is an excellent ftation for a fort, and commands a delightful view of the country around it, which is low and fertile. There is a fortification, of a similar kind, at Unadilla, in the flat lands.

Conflitution.] By the present conftitution of Pennfylvania, which was established in September, 1776, all legislative powers are lodged in a fingle body of men, which is ftiled . The general assembly of representatives of the freemen of Pennsylvania. The qualification required to render a perfon eligible to this assembly is, two years residence in the city or county for which he is chosen; no member of the house can hold any other office, except in the militia.

The qualifications of the electors, are, full age, and one year's residence in the itate, with payment of public taxes during that time. But the sons of freeholders are intitled to vote for representatives, without any qualification, except full age.

No man can be elected as a member of the assembly more than four years in leven.

The representatives are chosen annually on the second Tuesday in October, and they meet on the fourth Monday of the same month. A quorum of the houfe consists of two thirds of the whole number of members elected, and the members, before they take their feats, are obliged to take an oath or affirmation of fidelity to the state; and also fubfcribe a declaration or test, acknowledging their belief in one God, and the inspiration of the feriptures of the Old arid New Testament. The house chuse their own speaker, who, in the tranfaction of business, never leaves the chair. A journal of the proceedings of the assembly is pub lished regularly, and any member may insert the reasons of his vote upon the minutes of the house. To prevent hafty determinations on matters of importance, all bills of a public nature are printed before the last feading, and, except in cases of neceility, are not paffed into laws before the next session. The power of impeachment is vefted in the general affenbly.

The supreme executive power is lodged in a president, and a council consisting of a member from each county. The president is elected annually by the joint ballot of the assembly and council, and from the members of council

. A vice president is chosen at the same time. The counsellors are chosen by the freemen, every third year, and having kerved three years, they are ineligible for the four succeeding years. The appointments of one third only of the members expire every year, by which totation no more than one third can be new members, A counsellor is, by his office, a justice of the peace for the whole ftate. The president and council form a court for the trial of impeachments.

The council meet at the same time and place with the general affembly. Z z


The president and council appoint and commiffion judges of courts naval officers, judge of the admiralty, attorney general, and other officers y the appointment or whom is not expressly vested in the people or general assembly. But the freemen chuse the justices of peace, the colonels of militia, and the inferior military officers, and make a return of the perfons elected, to the president and council, who are impowered to commission them. The justices of peace hold their commissions for seven years, removeable however for misconduct by the general afleinbly. A justice, while in office, cannot be a representative in assembly, nor take any fees but such as shall be allowed by the legislature.

The judges of the supreme court hold their office for seven years, and at the end of that term, may be re-appointed. They have a fixed falary; and are not permitted to take any fees or perquifites, or to hold any other oflice, civil or military.

Courts of common pleas, sessions and orphans courts, are held quarterly in each city and county.

The supreme court, and courts of common pleas, have the powers chancery courts, fo far as is necessary for the perpetuating of teftimony, obtaining evidence from places out of the state, and the care of the perfans and estates of those who are non compotes mentis.

Sheriffs and coroners are chosen annually by the freemen; but they can ferve but three successive years, at the end of which they are ineligible during four years.

A register's office for the probate of wills, and granting letters of administration, and an office for the recording of deeds, are kept in each city and county: The officers are appointed by the general afsembly, removeable at their pleasure, and commissioned by the president and council,

The constitution of this state ordains, that the legilature Tall regulate entails in such a manner as to prevenc perpetuities.

Any foreigner of a good character may purchase and hold lands and other property, having tirit taken the oath of allegiance; and a year's refidence entities him to the privileges of a natural born subject; exceps that of being eligible to a feat in the legislature.

A Council of Censors, composed of two members from each county, chosen by the freemen, on the second Tuesday of October every sevench year, is instituted for the purpofe of enquiring whether the constitution has been preserved inviolate—whether the different branches of government have performed their duty as guardians of the people--whether the public taxes have been justly laid and collected, and in what manner the mnonies have been disposed of—and also whether the laws have been duly executed. For these purposes, they have power to fend for persons, papers and records--to pass public censures, order impeachments, and to recommend to the legislature the repeal of laws which they deem unconftitutional. They have power also to order a convention for the purpose of amending the constitution; publishing the articles proposed to be amended fix months before the election of the delegates. These powers continue in the council of censors for one year.

The people of Pennsylvania have different political sentiments, according to their progress in industry and civilized life. The first class of


Istriers in this state, who have been described as making the first advances in the unfettled country, are attached to the prefent simple and visionary frame of government. The second settlers are divided in their opinions respecting it. But ninety-nine out of an hundred of the third settlers, or real farmers, are opposed to it, and wish for a safe, ftable, and compound form of government. As the first species of settlers are more idle and bold than the laft, who, though the molt numerous, are quiet, they have forced them to submit to it.

Among other useful laws of this state, of a public nature, are, one that declares all rivers and creeks to be highways—a law for the emancipation of negroes, already mentioned--a bankrupt law, nearly on the model of the bankrupt laws of England--a law commuting hard labour for a long term of years, for death, as a punishment for many crimes which are made capital by the laws of England. Murder, arson, and one or two other crimes, are yet punished with death-A bill was before the legislature last year, (1787) the purport of which was to enable foreigners, (remaining in their native allegiance) to hold lands in Pennsylvania, which is not the case in Great Britain, nor in any other of the United States.

New Inventims.] These have been numerous and vseful. Among others are the following: A new model of the planetary worlds, by Mr. Rittenhouse, commonly, but improperly, called an Orrery--a quadrant, by Mr. Godfrey, called by the plagiary name of Hadley's quadranta steam-boat, lo conftructed, as that by the assistance of steam, operating on certain machinery within the boat, it moves with considerable -rapidity against the stream, without the aid of hands. Mellrs. Fitch and Rumsay contend with each other for the honour of this invention a new printing press, lately invented and conitructed in Philadelphia, worked by one person alone, who performs three-fourths as much work in a day, as two persons at a common press. Besides these there have been invented many manufacturing machines, for carding, spinning, winnowing, &c. which perforin an immense deal of work with very little manual assistance,

History.] Pennsylvania was granted by king Charles 11. to Mr. William Penn, son of the famous admiral Penn, in confideration of his father's -services to the crown *. Mr. Penn's petition for the grant was presented to the king in 1680; and after considerable delays, occafioned by Lord Baltimore's agent, who apprehended it might interfere with the Maryland patent, the charter of Pennsylvania received the royal signature on the 4th of March, 1681. To secure his title against all claiins, and prevent future altercation, Mr. Penn procured a quit-claim deed trom the duke of York, of all the lands, covered hy his own patent, to which the duke could have the least pretensions. This deed bears date, August 21, 1682. On the 24th of the same month, he obtained from the duke, by deed of feoffment, Newcattle, with iwelve miles of the adjacent territory,

* A large debt was due from the crown to Mr. Penn, a part of which be offered to remit, on condition be obtained his grant. This, whatever benevolent motives are held out to the world, must have been a principal consideration quit be be king in making the grant.


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and the lands south to the Hoarkills. In December following, Mr. Penn effected an union of the lower counties with the province of Pennsylvania

The first frame of government for Pennsylvania is dated in 1682. By this form, all legifative powers were velted in the governor and freemes of the province, in the form of a provincial council, and a general afíem bly. The council was to consist of seventy-two members, chosen by the freemen; of which the governor, or his deputy, was to be perpetual prefident, with a treble vote, One-third of this council went out of office every year, and their seats were supplied by new elections,

The general assemhiy was at first to confift of all the frcemen-after: wards of two hundred, and never to exceed five hundred.

In 1683, Mr. Penn offered another trame of government, in which the number of representatives was reduced, and the governor vested with a negative upon all bilis palled in assembly. By several specious arguments, the people were persuaded to accept this frame of gorernment.

Not long after, a dispute between Mr. Penn and Lord Baltimore required the former to go to England, and he committed the adminiftration of government to five commisioners, taken from the council. In 1686, Mr, Penn required the commissioners to diffolve the frame of go vernment; but not being able to effect his purpose, he, in 1648, appointed Capt. John Blackwell his deputy. From this period, the proprietors usually reluded in England, and adininiftered the government by deputies, who were devoted to their interest. Jealousies arose between the people and their governors, which never ceascd till the late revolution.' The primary cause of these jealousies, was an attempt of the proprietary to extend his own power, and abridge that of the assembly; and the confcquence was incessant disputes and diffenfions in the legislature.

In 1689, governor Blackwell, finding himself opposed in his views, had recourse to artifice, and prevailed on certain members of the council to withdraw themselves from the house; thus defeating the measures of the legislature t. The house voted this to be treachery, and addressed the governor on the occasion,

In 1693, the king and queen assumeå the government into their own hands. Col. Fletcher was appointed governor of New-York and Penn, sylvania by one and the fame commiffion, with equal powers in both provinces. By this commission, the number of counsellors in Pennfylvania was reduced,

Under the administration of governor Markham in 1696, a new form of government was established in Pennsylvania. The election of the council and assembly now became annual, and the legislature, with their powers and forms of proceeding, was new modelled.

In 1699, the proprietary arrived from England, and assumed the reins of government. "While he remained in Pennsylvania, the last charter of privileges, or frame of government, which continued till the revolution,

* See Franklin's historical review of the conftitution and government of Pennsylvania, Pago I4

+ Two instances of a feceffion of members from the affembly, witb fimilar views, bave taken place since the revolution, and fem to have been copied from this example in 1639.


was agreed upon and established. This was comp'eted and delivered to the people by the proprietary, Ucober 28, 1701, jutt on his einbarking for England. The inhabitants of the territory, as it was then called, or the lower counties, refused to accept this chaster, and thus feparated themselves from the province of Pennfylvania. They afterwards had their own assembly, in which the governor of Pennsylvania used to preside.

In September, 1700, the Susquehannah Indians granted to Mr. Penn all their lands on both fides the river. The Susquehannah, Shawanefe, and Paromak Indians, however, entered into articles of agreement with Mr. Penn, by which, on certain conditions of peaceable and friendly behaviour, they were permitted to settle about the head of Patomak, in the province of Pennsylvania. The Conostoga chiefs alo, in 1701, ratified the grant of the Susquehannah Indians, made the preceding year.

in 1708, Mr. Penn obtained from the Sachems of the country, a confirmation of the grants made by former Indians, of all the lands froin Duck creek, to the mountains, and from the Delaware to the Susquehannah. In this deed the Sachems declared, that they had seen and hrard read divers prier deets which had been given to Mr. Penn, by former chiefs.

While Mr. Penn was in America, he erected Philadelphia into a corporation. The charter was dated October 25, 1701, by which the police of the city was vested in a mayor, recorder, aldermen, and commoncouncil, with power to enquire into treasons, murders, and other felonies; and to enquire into and punish smaller crimes. The corporation had alfo extensive civil jurisdiction; but it was diffolved at the late revolution, and Philadelphia is governed like other counties in the state.

By tlie favourable terms which Mr. Fenn offered to settlers, and an unlimited toleration of all religious denominations, the population of the province was extremely rapid. Notwithstanding the attempts of the proprietary, or his governors, to extend his own power, and accumulate property by procuring grants from the people, and exempting his lands from taxation, the government was generally mild, and the burdens of the people by no means oppretlive. The felfish designs of the proprietaries were vigorously and constantly opposed by the affembly, whole firmness preserved the charter rights of the province.

Ar the revolution, the government was abolished. The proprietaries were absent, and the people by their representatives formed a new conftitution on republican principles. The proprietaries were excluded from all thare in the government, and the legislature offered them one hundred and thirty thoufand pounds in lieu of all quit rents, which was finally accepted. The proprietaries, however, ftill potless in Pennsylvania many large tracts of excellent land.

It is to be regretted, that among all the able writers in this important ftate, none has yet gratified the public with its interefting history. As therefore history is not profefTedly the province of a geographer, a more particular detail of historical facts, than has already bean given, will not be expected. We shall therefore conclude the hifory of Pennfylvania with the following list of governors.

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