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174 4,718

17

91 48

11765 177! 1772 1773 17841

17841 1787 Barrels of fish,

5,128 5,7766,430 Boxes fperma. candles,

683 1;0041 514 Boxes tallow candles, 1,202 873

1,078 1,1651,288 702 Boxes of chocolate, 479 385 306

629 Cwt, of coffee,

501 296 1,639 Buihels of falt,

64,468 42,803) 39,192 Pounds of cotton wool,

2,200 5,840 25,070 Pounds of leather,

25,970 40,725 31,6967,080 Packages of ditto,

377 Sides of ditto,

970 Pounds of rice, 1258,3761834,974.998,4001

12,610,825 In the year 1787, besides the above articles, the following were exported : Barrels of ship ftuff, 1,443 Pounds of cheese,

29,472 Barrels of rye meal, 162 Barrels of herrings,

610 Caks of oat meal,

23 Barrels of mackerels, Kegs of bread,

25,152 Quintals of dry fish, Barrels of Indian meal, 14,710 Kegs of fturgeon,

363 Bushels of rye,

1,140 Barrels of salmon, Bufhels of barley, 306 Barrels of manhadden,

236 Bushels of oats,

79421 Barrels of honey, Barrels of peas and beans, 919 Kegs of oysters, Barrels of apples, 2,555 Packages of cyder,

225 Barrels of dried apples,

24
Barrels of porter,

262 Bushels of potatoes,

8,656 Hogsheads of country rum, 1,266 Bushels of turnips,

195
Oxen,

4 Bushels of onions,

4,373
Cows,

4 Barrels of beets, 12 Sheep,

345 Barrels of nuts, 185 Hogs,

34 Barrels of cranberries,

65 Boat boards, 740 Tons of steel,

62 Windsor chairs, 5,731 Tons of caftings,

16 Shaken hogsheads,

66 Sets of wheel timbers, 1,056 Anchors,

37 Pairs of wheels, 84. Stills and worms,

48 Oars, 1,400 Bricks,

423,469 Handspikes,

396 Bushels of lime, Mafts and spars, 355 Barrels of glue,

IS Coaches,

8 Barrels of manufactured tobacco, 78 Chariots, 4 Calks of snuff,

535 Phaetons, 9 Caiks genseng,

1,768 Carriages of different kinds, 36 Bags of farsaparilla,

8 Chaises, 40 Calks of indigo,

173 Kittareens, 10 Tierces of tallows

24 Sulkeys,

7
Calks of linseed oil,

62 Waggons,

40 Casks of spirits of turpentine, 119 Wheelbarrows,

96 Boxes of hair powder, 118 Drays, 4 Barrels of ditto,

16 Ploughs,

Bufels of bran,

10,306 Harrow,

33 Geese,

· 4,775 Stoves,

468

22

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20

Harrow,

Packages of paper,

353 Turkeys, 48 Reams of ditto,

2,453 Boxes of mustard,

42 Packages of parte-boards, Barrels of ship-bread, 26,953 Box of parchment, Pumps,

4 Barrels of varnish, Boats,

15 Boxes of trees and plants,
Flaxseed-screens,

14 Packages of seeds and plants,
Cutting-boxes,
14 Pounds of fassafras,

2,000 Carts,

26 Chests and casks of snake-root, 34 Spinning-wheels,

30 Calks of pink-root, Corn-mills,

4 Boxes of essence of spruce, 280 Settees, 38 Bays of hops,

30 Dutch fans,

55 Casks of clover-feed,
Calks of ship-blocks,

9 Bags of ditto,
Tons of oak-bark,
45 Packages of harness,

10 Hogsheads of ditto,

48 Calves-ikins,
Sifters,
286 Calks of horn-tips,

15 Logs of hickory,

13 Shects of iron,
Saddle-trees,
247 Share-moulds,

1,233 Tons of nail-rods,

133 A quantity of cedar & earthen ware,

3

The following remarks of a well informed citizen of Philadelphia, ar given as a proper illustration of the foregoing accounts.

It is well known, chat a considerable part of the southern states have been in the habit of receiving their supplies of forsign commodities through this city; and that, of consequence, the transportation of these articles muft have formed a considerable part of the commerce of this port. Many of these articles might be ascertained with accuracy; whilst the value and quantity of others could not, from their nature, be estimated, under our present export law's. But as the object here chiefly regards articles of American produce or inanufacture, all others are excluded from the list of exports for 17.07. It will be sufficient to enumerate a few of the foreign articles, from which it will appear, that the observations on this head are ill founded. From Europe we import, among other articles, wines, brandy, geneva, salt, fruit, drugs, and dry goods of every kind; from the Welt-ladies, rum, fugar, coffee, cotton, and falt; and from the East-Indies, teas, spices, china ware, and dry goods ; all of which articles are again exported to other parts of this continent, and the West-Indies, to a very considerable amount,

On a comparison of the exports of the lait year, with those of the former ycars in the foregoing table, it will appear, that many articles, of which a considerable value is now exported, were either not shipped at all, or to a very small amouni, in chole years, whilst some others are contiderably short of the quantity then exported. The first of these tacts may be attributed to the great improvements recently made in the agriculture and manufactures of this state; whilft the latter is in many initances to be accounted for, from causes rather benehcial than injurious to the prosperity of this country.

Much of the provisions which were in the period antecedent to the late entett, shipped to foreign markets, is now consumed by the numerous

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hands employed in manufacturing these articles of raw materials, which were formerly shipped to Europe, and returned to us in a manufactured Itate. Of these may be mentioned iron, leather, barley, tobacco, and furs, which we now manufacture into nails and steel, shoes, boots, and faddlery, porter and beer, snuff and hats, in quantities more than suficient for our own consumption : a considerable quantity of these and other articles, formerly imported, are now manufactured by our own citizens, and form a respectable part of our exports : among these may be enumerated, as the most important, beef, pork, butter, cheese, muf. tard, loaf sugar, chocolate, houshold furniture, carriages, soap, candles, hair-powder, ftarch, paper, and pasteboard. Upon an examination of the exports, many valuable articles will be found not enumerated : this arises from the fame cause, which prevents ascertaining the amount of dry goods : namely, the imposlibility of knowing either the value or contents of packages, which pay no duty or inspection; confequently are only entered in a general way, without any aitention to their contents. Of goods under the last description, the exportation is very great; being articles particularly demanded by the southern states, several of which receive their principal supplies of these articles from this city; among them, the chief are, shoes, boots, hats, gloves, printed books, and other ftationary, faddlery, copper, tin and brass wares, and ship chandlery. Number of vessels entered at the Custom-house, Philadelphia, in the years

1786 and 1787
1786.

17876 Ships, 91

81 Brigs,

228 Sloops,

450 Schooners 163

173 Snows

6 Cutters

196

380

IO

Total
910

870 From the foregoing list of articles exported from the state, it is easy to see that her manufactures and agriculture have been already advanced to a degree of improvement superior to any of her sister ftates. The people called Quakers, and the Germans, have contributed their full proportions towards this improvement.

• Since the introduction of the carding and spinning machines;' fays a Philadelphian writer, it is found that jeans can be made so as to underfell those imported from England, with the unavoidable charges of importation. Every public spirited man may be supplied with this article at THE FACTORY, where the fale is very rapid, and purchases have been made by every description of the citizens of Pennsylvania, by the citizers of the adjacent ftates, and by some foreigners of distinction.' • Another article calls for the attention of the friends of American manufactures, and of every frugal man—thread, cotton, and worsted hosiery. Several gentlemen have made a careful and impartial examinasion of the stockings manufactured in this city, in German-town, in the

town

town and county of Lancaster, Bethlehem, and Reading, and they find that the thread stockings made in Pennsylvania, and fold generally at a dollar per pair, are of the fame fineness with imported ftockings which are fold at 8s. 4d. and 8s. 6d. They also find that mixed stockings of thread and cotton), made in Pennsylvania, are sold lower in proportion compared with those of Great-Britain. Besides this difference in price, it is a well known fact that three pair of Pennsylvania made stockings will wear longer than four pair of those inported. There are now, (1788) about 250 stocking looms in the different parts of the city and state, each of which makes on a medium, one pair and a half of stockings every day. These, deducting Sundays, will amount to 117,375 pair per annum, which, at 75. 6d. a pair, is £ 44015 12 6. The increase of wool and fax, the reduction of labor, provisions and rents, the cultivation of cotton in the southern states, and, above all, the use of machines to card, spin, and twist cotton thread, will greatly promote this article, of which, at two pair to each person annually, the United States require a yearly supply of near fix millions of pairs--a capital domestic demand, certain, and steadily increasing with our population. The charges of importing hosiery, under the general import of five per cent. will be twenty-three per cent. exclufive of any profit to the importer or retailer. Should the adoption of the constitution tempt any, either Americans or foreigners, to push manufactures here, this branch promises great profit, and will no doubt be among the first that will engage their attention.

As many as cwo-thirds of the Pennsylvanians subfift by agriculture. The articles they raise have been enumerated in the list of exports

. A gentleman in the vicinity of Philadelphia, in the year 1788, planted one acre of carrots, which yielded him thirty tons-also an acre of pumpkins, which produced the same quantity. He lows his cartots with a drill plough, and plants his pumpkins between the ift and 10th of June With these carrots and pumpkins only, he yearly fats a number of the best beeves that are driven to Philadelphia market.

The produce of the country east of the Susquehannah river is carried to Philadelphia in waggons drawn by horses, except what is brought down the rivers in boats. The produce of the counties of York, Cumberland and Franklin, which is principally wheat, is generally carried to Baltimore in waggons. It is probable that Pennsylvania will continue to lose the trade of these three productive counties, till good roads are made to the Susquehannah, and two free ferries established, one to Yorktown, and the other to Carlisle. These ind:cements would probably turn the channel of the trade of these counties from Baltimore to Philadelphia.

The produce of the counties west of the Allegany mountains is principally purchased as a supply for the troops ftationed in thole parts, and for the numerous emigrants into the western country. Large herds of cattle are raised here with

very
little

cxpence. Curious springs.] In the neighbourhood of Reading, is a spring about fourteen teet deep, and about ico feet square. A full mill it ream issues from it. The waters are clear and full of fishes. From appearances it is probable that this spring is the opening or outlet of a very considerable river, which, a nile and an half or two miles above this place, sinks into the earth, and is conveyed to this outlet in a subterranean channel. z

In

In the northern parts of Pennsylvania there is a creek called Oil creek, which empties into the Allegany river. It illues from a spring, on the top of which floats an oil, funilar to that called Barbadoes tar; and from which one man may gather fe eral gallons in a day. The troops fent to guard the weiter poits, halted at this spring, collected fome of the oil, and bathed their joints with it. This gave them great relief from the rheumatic complaints with which they were affected. The waters, of which the troops drank freely, operated as a gentle purge.

Remarkable caves.] There are three remarkable grottos or caves in this state; one near Carlisle, in Cumberland county; one in the township of Durham, in Bucks county; and the other at Swetara, in Lancaster county. Of the two former I have received no particular descriptions. The latter is on the east bank of Swetara river, about two miles above its confluence with the Susquehannah. Its entrance is fpacious, and descends so much as that the surface of the river is rather higher than the bottom of the cave. The vault of this cave is of folid lime itone rock, perhaps 20 feet thick, It contains feveral apartments, fome of thein very high and spacious. The water is inceffantly percolating through the roof, and falls in drops to the bottom of the cave. Thefe drops petrify as they fall, and have gradually former folid pillars which appear as supports to the roof. Thirty years ago there were ten such pillars, each fix inches in diameter, and fix feet high; all fo ranged that the place they enclof.d resembled a fancfuary in a Roman church. No royal throne ever exhibited more grandeur than this lnfus naturæ. The resemblances of several monuments are found indented in the walls on the sides of the cave, which appear like the tombs of departed heroes. Suspended from the roof is the bell,' kwhich is nothing more than a ftone projected in an unusal forın) fo called from the found that it occasions when itruck, which is similar to that of a bell.

Some of the Italactites are of a colour like fugar-candy, and others resemble loaf sugar; but their beauty is much deficed by the country people. The water, which percolates through the roof, 1o much of it as is not petrified in its course, runs down the declivity, and is both pleasant and wholesome to drink. There are several holes in the bortom of the cave, defcending perpendicularly, perhaps into a abyss below, which render it dangerous to walk without a liglit. At the end of the cave is a pretty brook, which, after a short course, loses itself among the rocks. Beyond this brook is an outlet from the cave by a very narrow aperture. Through this the vapours continually pass outwards with a strong current of air, and ascend, resembling, at night, the sneak of a furnace. Part of these vapours and fogs appear, on ascending, to be condensed at the head of this great alembic, and the more volatile paris to be carried off, through the aperture comm

mmunicating with the exterior air before mentioned, by the force of the air in its palage *.

Antiquities.] On a high hill, near the Tyoga river, a little to the fouthward of the line which divides New York from Pennsylvania, are to be seen the remains of an ancient fontilieation. The form of it is cir. cules, and it is encompated with a entrenchment. From appearances it

Amer. Fhil. Trans. Vol. II, P. 177

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