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The following remarks of a well informed citizen of Philadelphia, ar given as a proper illustration of the foregoing accounts.
It is well known, chat a considerable part of the southern states have been in the habit of receiving their supplies of forcizn commodities through this city; and that, of consequence, the transportation of these articles must have formed a considerable part of the commerce of this port. Many of these articles might be ascertained with accuracy; whilst the value and quantity of others could not, from their nature, be estimated, under our present export laws. But as the object here chiefly regards articles of American produce or manuíacture, all others are excluded froin the list of exporis for 1757. It will be fufficient to cnumerate a few of the foreign articles, from which it will appear, that the observations on this head are ill founded. From Europe we import, among other articles, wines, brandy, genera, falt, fruit, drugs, and dry goods of every kind; from the Welt-Indies, rum, sugar, coffee, cotton, and falt; and from the Eat-Indies, teas, spices, china ware, and dry goods ; all of which articles are again exported to other parts of this continent, and the West Indies, to a vesy considerable amount
On a comparison of the exports of the lait year, with those of the former years in the foregoing table, it will appear, that many articles, of which a considerable value is now exported, were either not shipped at all, or to a very small amount, in those years, whilst some others are confiderably short of the quantity then exported. The first of these tacts may be attributed to the grcat improvements recently made in the agriculture and manufactures of this state; whilst the latter is in many initances to be accounted for, from causes rather benchcial than injurious to the prosperity of this country
Much of the provisions which were in the period antecedent to the late Cuntett, shipped to foreign markets, is now consumed by the numerous
870 From the foregoing list of articles exported from the state, it is easy to see that her manufactures and agriculture have been already advanced to a degree of improvement superior to any of her sister states. The people called Quakers, and the Germans, have contributed their full proportions towards this improvement.
• Since the introduction of the carding and spinning machines,' fays a Philadelphian writer, « it is found that jeans can be made so as to under. sell those imported from England, with the unavoidable charges of importation. Every public spirited man may be supplied with this article at THE FACTORY, where the fale is very rapid, and purchases have been made by every description of the citizens of Pennsylvania, by the citizeris of the adjacent states, and by some foreigners of distinction • Another article calls for the attention of the friends of American manufactures, and of every frugal man—thread, cotton, and worsted hosiery. Several gentlemen have made a careful and impartial examination of the stockings inanufactured in this city, in German-town, in the town and county of Lancaster, Bethlehem, and Reading, and they find that the thread stockings made in Pennsylvania, and fold generally at a dollar per pair, are of the same fineness with imported ftockings which are sold at 8s. 4d. and 8s. 6d. They also find that mixed stockings of thread and cotton, made in Pennsylvania, are sold lower in proportion compared with those of Great-Britain. Besides this difference in price, it is a well known fact that three pair of Pennsylvania made stockings will wear longer than four pair of those imported. There are now, (1788) about 250 stocking looms in the different parts of the city and state, each of which makes on a medium, one pair and a half of stockings every day. These, deducting Sundays, will amount 10 117,375 pair per annum, which, at 75. 6d. a pair, is £44015 12 6. The increase of wool and flax, the reduction of labor, provisions and rents, the cultivation of cotton in the southern states, and, above all, the use of machines to card, spin, and twist cotton thread, will greatly promote this article, of which, at two pair to each person annually, the United States require a yearly supply of near fix millions of pairs--a capital domestic demand, certain, and steadily increasing with our population. The charges of importing hosiery, under the general import of five per cent. will be twenty-three per cent. exclufive of any profit to the importer or retailer. Should the adoption of the constitution tempi any, either Americans or foreigners, to push manufactures here, this branch promises great profit, and will no doubt be among the first that will engage their attention,
As many as two-thirds of the Pennsylvanians fubfift by agriculture. The articles they raise have been enumerated in the list of exports.
A gentleman in the vicinity of Philadelphia, in the year 1988, planted one acre of carrots, which yielded him thirty tons-also an acre of pumpkins, which produced the same quantity. He sows his carrots with a drill plough, and plants his pumpkins between the it and 10th of June, With thele carrots and pumpkins only, he yearly fats a number of the best beeves that are driven to Philadelphia market.
The produce of the country east of the Susquehannah river is carried to Philadelphia in waggons drawn by horses, except what is brought down the rivers in boats. The produce of the counties of York, Cumberland and Franklin, which is principally wheat, is generally carried to Baltimore in waggons. It is probable that Pennsylvania will continue to lose the trade of these three produétire counties, till good roads are made to the Susquehannah, and iwo free ferries established, one to Yorktown, and the other to Carlisle. These inducements would probably turn the channel of the trade of these counties from Baltimore to Philadelphia. The produce of the counties west of the Alligany mountains is principally purchased as a supply for the troops stationed in those parts, and for the numerous emigrants into the western country. Large herds of cattle are raised here with very little expence.
Curious springs.] in the neighbourhood of Reading, is a spring about fourteen teet deep, and about ico feet square. A full mill stream issues from it. The waters are clear and full of files. From appearances it is probable that this spring is the opening or outlet of a very considerable river, which, a mile and an half or two miles above this place, finks into the earth, and is conveyed to this outlet in a subterranean channel.
In the northern parts of Pennfylvania there is a creek called Oil creek, which empties into the Allegany river. It illies from a spring, on the top of which iruts an oil, arnilar o that called Barbadoes tar; and from which one man nu geber fe eral ailgs in a day. The troops fent to guard the weit m eis, halted at this firing, collected fome of the oil, and bached their joints with it. This gave thema great relief from the theumatic complaints with which ther were a fected. The waters, of which the trocis drank freely, operated as a gentle purge.
Remarkable caces. There are ihres remarkable grortos or caves in this ftate; one near Carille, in Cumberland county'; one in the township of Durham, in Bucks county; and the other at Swetara, in Lancaker county. Of the two former I have received no particular descriptions. The latter s on the east bank of Swetara riier, about two miles above its connuence with the Susquehannah. Its entrance is spacious, and descends so much as that the surface of the river is rather higher than the bottom of the cave. The vault of this cave is of folid lime ftone rock, perhaps 20 feet thick, It contains several apartments, fome of thein very high and spacious. The water is incettantly percclating through the roof, and falls in drops to the bottom of the cave. Thefe drops petrify as they fall, and have gradually formed folid pillars which arxar as fupports to the roof. Thirty years ago there were ten such pillars, each fix inches in diameter, and fix feet high; all fo ranged that the place they enclorid refernbled a fanctuary in a Poman church. No royal throne crer exhibited more grandeur than this lumus nature. The resemblances of several monuments are found indented in the walls on the sides of the cave, which apreas like the tombs of departed herocs. Suspended from the roof is the bell,' (which is nothing more than a fione projected in an unusal form) fo called from the found that it occafions when itruck, which is fimilar to that of a beil.
Some of the Aala Stites are of a colour like fugar-candy, and others resemble loaf fugar; but their beauty is much detacid by the country people. The water, which percolates through the roof, io much of it as is noc petrified in its courie, ruas down the declivity, and is both pleataot and wholesome to drink. There are several holes in the bottom of the cave, descending perrendicularly, perhaps into an abrís below, which runder it dangerous to walk without a light. At the end of the cave is a pretty brook, which, after a short courie, loses itself among the rocks. Berond this brook is an outlet fruin the cave by a very narrow averture. Through this the vapour's continually pass outwards with a strong current of air, and ascend, r sembling, at nxght, the sncak of a furnace. Part of these vapours and fegs alrear, on alcendirg, to be cordenied at the head cf this great alembie, and the more volatile parts to be carried off, ihrough the aperture communicating with the exterior air bciore mentioned, by the force of the air in its pagage *
Antiquities. On a high hill, near the Tyoga river, a liccle to the Southward of the line which divides New York from Pennsylvania, are to be seen the remains of an ancient fontilertion. The form of it is circular, and it is encompatied with wentrunchment. From appearances it