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length of the city east and west, that is, from the Delaware to the Schuylkill, upon the original plan of Mr. Penn, is 10,300 feet, and the breadth, north and south, is 4837 feet. Not two-fifths of the plot covered by the city charter is yet built. The inhabitants, however, have not confined chemfelves within the original limits of the city, but have built north and south along the Delaware, two miles in length. The longest ftreet is Second-Itreet, about 700 feet from Delaware river, and parallel to it. The circumference of that part of the city which is built, if we include Kensington on the north, and Southwark on the south, may be about five miles.
Market-street is 100 feet wide, and runs the whole length of the city from river to river. Near the middle, it is intersected at right angles by Broad-street, 113 feet wide, running nearly north and south, quite across the city.
Between Delaware river and Broad-street are 14 streets, nearly equi.' diftant, running parallel with Broad-street, across the city; and between Broad-street and the Schuylkill, there are nine streets, equidistant from each other. Parallel to Market.ftreet are eight other streets, running east and west from river to river, and intersect the cross ítreets at right angles; all these streets are 50 feet wide, except Arch-street, which is 6 feet wide. All the streets which run north and south, except Broadstreet mentioned above, are 50 feet wide. There were four squares of eight acres each, one at each corner of the city, originally reserved for public and common uses. And in the center of the city, where Broaditreet and Market-streer interfect each other, is a square of ten acres, reserved in like manner, to be planted with rows of trees for public walks.
The first street between Delaware river and the bank, is called Waterftreet. The next, on the top of the bank, is called Front-ftreet; and welt of this the streets are numbered, fecond, third, fourth, c.
On the river Delaware, there are 16 public landings, at the distance of 4 or 500 feet from each other; and private wharfs sufficient for 200 sail of sea vessels to unload at a time; and room to build any necessary number. There are 10 public landings on the Schuylkill, which, as the town does not yet extend so far, are at present of no use.
Philadelphia was founded in 1682, by the celebrated William Penn, who, in October 1701, granted a charter, incorporating the town with the privilege of choosing a mayor, recorder, eight aldermen, twelve common-council men, a sheriff and clerk.
The city charter was vacated by the revolution, and has not been renewed under the new government. A bill for this purpose is now (Nov. 1788) depending before the legislature. 'In 1749, the dwelling houses in the several wards in Philadelphia, were as follows.
Total • 2076 At this time the number of inhabitants in the city were eftimated at 11,000 whites, and 600 blacks. The number of churches were then as follows, 2 Presbyterian,
Į German Lutheran, 2 Qaaker,
German Calvinist, i Episcopalian,
I Moravian, i Swedish,
i Roman Catholic. i Baprift, The following will give the reader an idea of the proportional pum. bers of the several religious denominations in Philadelphia. An account of births and burials in the united churches of Christ,
Church and St. Peter's in Philadelphia, from December 25, 1781,
'Females , 88
Buried under one yeas -
40 - 50
- 8 - 50 - 60 - 11 - 5 - 10 - 10 -- 60 - 70 - - 20 10- 20 - - 9
70- 80 - - 9
Swedes christenings - - 34 Burials . 28
28 German Lutherans -
tributed to this difference, among which the most operative has been che prevalence of pariy spirit, which has been, and is carried to greater lengths in this city than in any other in America : Yet no city can boast of so many useful improvements in manufactures, in the mechanical arts, in the art of healing, and particularly in the fcience of huinanity. The tradesmen and manufacturers have become so numerous, that they are be. ginning to affcciate for mutual improvement, and to promote regularity and uniformity in their feveral occupations. The carpenters, the cord. wainers, the faylors, the watch-makers, the joiners and hair-dressers, have already allociated, and others are forming into companies upon the fame plan.
The Philadelphians have exerted their endeavoors, with happy and growing success, to prevent the intemperate use of fpirituous liquors. In accomplishing this benevolent purpole, on which so much of the pros perity and glory of our empire depend, every good citizen in the union will cheerfully lend his aid and influence. As one important ftep towards effecting their design, they are discountenancing distilleries, which are of course declining, and encouraging breweries, which are fast increasing. The increale of the consumption of beer, in the course of a few years palt, in every part of America, and particularly in Pennsylvania, has been astonishing. It has become a fashionable drink, and it is not improbable but ihat in a few years it will come into universal use among all clailes of people. In proportion as the use of beer increases, in the same proportion will the use of spirituous liquors decrease. This will be a happy exchange.
In short, whether we consider the convenient local situation, the size, the beauty, the variety and utility of the improvements in mechanics, in agriculture and manufactures, or the industry, the enterprize, the humanity and the abilities of the inbabitants of the city of Philadelphia, it merits to be viewed as the capital of the flourishing EMPIRE OF UNITED AMERICA.
LANCASTER is the largest inland town in America. It is the seat of justice in Lancaster county, and slands on Coneltogo creek, 66 miles, a little to the north of the west from Philadelphia. Its trade is already large; and must increase in proportion as the surrounding country populates. It contains about gco houses, betides a molt elegant court. house, a number of handsome churches and other public buildings, and about 4,500 souls.
CARLISLE is the feat of justice in Cumberland county, and is 120 miles westward of Philadelphia. It contains upwards of 1500 inhabitants, who live in near 300 itone houses, and worship in three churches.' They have also a court-house and a college. Thirty-four years ago, this spot was a wilderness, and inhabited by Indians and wild beasts. A like instance of the rapid progress of the arts of civilized life is scarcely 10 be found in history.
PirtSBURGH, on the western side of the Allegany mountains, is 320 miles westward of Philadelphia, is beautifully fituated on a point of land. hetween the Allegany and Monongahela rivers, and about a quarter of ai swile above their contluence, in lat. 40° 26' north. It contained in 1787, 140 houses, and 7oo iniabitants, who are Presbyterians and Epis.