« הקודםהמשך »
In Pennsylvania there are fixecen congregations of English BAPTIS , 'The doctrines, discipline, and worship of thele, are fimilar to those of the New-England Baprifts. In 1970, the number of this denominatioa of baptists was reckoned at 650 families, making, as was supposed, 3,250 fouls, who were divided into ten churches, who had eighteen mecting-houses, and eleven ministers. Besides these there are a few Sab. batarian baptifts, who keep the seventh day as holy time, and who are the remains of the Keitliian or Quaker baptists, and a number of Tunkers and Mennonitis, both of whom are professionally baptists, and are of German extraction.
The TUNKERS are so called in derision, from the word tanken, to put a morfol in funice, The English word that conveys the proper meaning of Tunkers is Sops or Dippers. They are also called Tamblers, from the manner in which they perform baprism, which is by putting the perfon, while kneeling, head first under water, so as to resemble the motion of the body in the action of tumbling. The Germans found the letters 1 and b like d and p; hence the words Tunkers and Tumblers have been corrupily written Dunkers and Dumplers.
The first appearing of these people in America, was in the fall of the rear 1719, when about twenty families landed in Philadelphia, and dispersed themselves in various parts of Pennsylvania. They are what are called General Baptifts, and hold to general redemption and general falvation. They use great plainness of dress and language, and will neither swear, nor fight, nor go to law, nor take interest for the money they lend. They commonly wear their beards-keep the first day Sabbath, except one congregation have the Lord's Supper, with its ancient attendants of love-feasts, with washing of feet, kils of charity, and righe hand of fellowship. They anoint the fiek wish oil for their recovery, and use the trine immersion, with laying on of hands and prayer, even while the person baprised is in the water. Their church governient and discipline are the same with those of the English baptists, except that every broiher is allowed to speak in the congregation ; and their beit Speaker is usually ordained to be their minifter. They have deacons, dea. conefles (from among their ancient widow's) and exhoriers, who are all licensed to use their gifts Itatedly. On the whole, notwithstanding their peculiarities, they appear to be huinble, well-meaning christians, and have acquired the character of the Hurmeis Tunkers.
Their principal settlement is at Ephrata, sometimes called Tunkerssown, in Lancaster county, fixty jailes westward of Philadelphia. It conalts of about forty buildings, of which tlirce are places of Worship : One is called Sharon, and adjoins the filter's apartment as a chapel; another, belonging to the brother's apartment, called Bethany. To these the brethren and sisters resort, fepasately, to worship morning and evening, and sometimes in the night. The third is a common church, called Zion, where all in the settlement meet once a week for public worship. The brethren have adopted the White Friars' dress, with some alterations ; the filters, that of the nuos; and both, like frem, have taken the vow of celibacy. All, however, do not keep the row. When they marry, they leave their cells and go among the married people. They sublik by cultivating their lands, by attending a printing-office, a griit mill,
a paper a paper mill, an oil mill, &c. and the sisters by spinning, weaving, sewing, &c. They, at first, flepe on board couches, but now on beds, and have otherwise abated much of their former feverity. This is the congregation who keep the seventh day Sabbath. Their singing is charming, owing to the pleasantness of their voices, the variety of parts, and the devout manner of performance. Besides this congregation at Ephrata, there were, in 1770, fourteen others in various other parts of Pennsylvania, and some in Maryland. The whole, exclusive of those in Maryland, amounted to upwards of 2coo souls.
The MENNONIsts derive their name from Menno Simon, a native of Witmars in Germany, a man of learning, born in the year 1505, in the time of the reformation by Luther and Calvin. He was a famous Roman Catholic preacher till about the year 1531, when he became a Baptist. Some of his followers came into Penntvivania from New York, and settled at Germantown, as early as 1692. This is at present their principal congregation, and the mother of the rest. Their whole number, in 1770, in Pennsylvania, was upwards of 4000, divided into thirteen churches, and forty-two congregations, under the care of fifteen ordained minifters, and fifty three licenced preachers.
The Mennonilts do not, like the Tunkers, hold the doctrine of general Salvation; yet like them, they will neither swear nor fight, nor bear any civil office, nor go to law, nor take interest for the money they lend, though many break this last rule. Some of them wear their beards; wash each others feet, &c. and all use plainness of speech and dress. Some have been expelled their society for wearing buckles in their shoes, and having pocket holes in their coats. Their church government is democratical. They call themselves the Harmless christians, Revengeless christians, and Weaponless christians. They are Baptifts rather in name than in fact; for they do not use immersion. Their common mode of baptism is this: The person to be baptized kneels; the niinifter holds his hands over him, into which the deacon pours water, which runs through upon the head of the person kneeling. After this, follow imposition of . hands and prayer.
Literary, Humane, and other useful Societies. There are more numerous, and flourishing in Pennsylvania, than in any of the Thirteen States. The names of these improving inftitutions, the times when they were established, and a summary of the benevolent designs they were intended to accomplish, will be mentioned in their order.
1. The AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, HELD AT PHILADELPHIA, FOR PROMOTING USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. This fociety was formed January 20,'1769, by the union of two other literary fo. cieties that had subsisted for foine time in Philadelphia; and were created one body corporate and politic, with such powers, privileges, and immunities as are necessary for answering the valuable purposes which the society had originally in view, by a charter, granted by the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, on the 15th of March, 1780. This society have alrcady published two very valuable volumes of their transactions; one in 1771, ile other 1786.
In 1771, this society consisted of nearly 300 members ; and upwards of 120 have since been added; a large proportion of which, are foreign
* An affeeling history of the Breihren's million among the Indians, will fbortly be publishedha Y 4
Colleges, Academies, and Schools. From the enterprizing and literary spirit of the Pennsylvanians, we should naturally conclude, what is fact, that there are numerous.
In Philadelphia is a UNIVERSITY, founded during the war. Its funds were partly given by the state, and partly taken from the old college of Philadelphia.
A medical school, which was founded in 1765, is attached to the university; and has professors in all the branches of medicine, who prepare the students (whose number, yearly, is 50 or 60) for degrees in that science.
' DICKINSON COLLEGE, at Carlisle, 120 miles weftward of Philadelphia, was founded in 1783, and has a principal -- three profesors--a philosophical apparatus-a library, consisting of nearly 3000 volumes—four thousand pounds in funded certificates, and 10,000 acres of land; the laft, the donation of the state. In 1987, there were eighty students belonging to this college. This number is annually increasing. It was named after his excellency John Dickinson, formerly president of this Itate.
In 1787, a college was founded at Lancaster, 66 miles from Philadelphia, and honoured with the name of FRANKLIN COLLEGE, after his excellency Dr. Franklin. This college is for the Germans; in which they may educate their youth in their own language, and in conformity to their own habits. The English language, however, is taught in it. Its endowments are nearly the faine as those of Dickinson college. Its trustees consist of Lutherans, Calvinists, and English ; of each an equal number. The principal is a Lutheran, and the vice-principal is a Calvinilt. This college, as it concentres the whole German interest, and has ample funds to support professors in every branch of science, has flattering prospects of growing importance and extenfire utility.
In Philadelphia, befides the university and medical school already mentioned, there is the ProTESTANT EPISCOPAL ACADEMY, a very flourishing institution--THE ACADEMY FOR YOUNG LADIES—Another for the Friends or Quakers, and one for the Germans ; besides five free schools, one for the people called Quakers, one for Presbyterians, one for Catholics, one for Germans, and one for Negroes. The Episcopalians have an academy at York-town, in York-county. There is also an academy at German town, another at Fittiburgh, and another at Washington ; these are endowed by donations from the legislature, and by liberal contributions of individuals.
The schools for young men and women in Bethlehem and Nazareth, under the direction of the people called Moravians, have already been mentioned, and are decidedly upon the best establishment of any schools in America. Besides these, there are private schools in different parts of the state; and to promote the education of poor children, the state have appropriated a large tract of land for the establishment of free schools. A great proportion of the labouring people among the Germans and Irith, are, however, extremely ignorant. • Chief Towns.] Philadelphia is the Capital, not only of this, but of the United-States. It is situated on the weit bank of the river Delaware, on an extensive plain, about 118 miles (some say more) from the sea. The