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In Pennsylvania there are fixteen congregations of English BAPTISTS. The doctrines, discipline, and worship of these, are similar to those of the New England Baptifts. In 1770, the number of this denomination of baptifts was reckoned at 650 families, making, as was supposed, 3,250 fouls, who were divided into ten churches, who had eighteen mecting-houses, and eleven mivillers. Besides these there are a few Sab. batarian baptists, who keep the seventh day as holy time, and who are the remains of the Keithian or Quaker baptists, and a number of Tunkers and Mennonills, both of whom are professionally baptists, and are of German extraction.
The TUNKERS are so called in derision, from the word tænken, to put a morjel in fauce, The English word that conveys the proper meaning of Tunkers is Sops or Dippers. They are also called Tumblers, from the manner in which they perform baprism, which is by putting the perfon, while kneeling, head first under water, so as to resemble the motion of the body in the action of tumbling. The Germans found the letters 1 and 6 like d and p; hence the words Tunkers and Tumblers have been corrupily written Dunkers and Dumplers.
The first appearing of these people in America, was in the fall of the rear 1719, when about twenty families landed in Philadelphia, and dispersed themselves in various parts of Pennsylvania. They are what are called General Baptists, and hold to general redemption and general salvation. They use great plainness of dress and language, and will neither swear, nor fight, nor go to law, nor take interest for the money they lend. They commonly wear their beards--keep the first day Sabbath, except one congregation-have the Lord's Supper, with its ancient attendants of love-feafts, with washing of feet, kits of charity, and right hand of fellowvtip. They anoint the fiek with oil for their recovery, and use the trine immersion, with laying on of bands and prayer, even while the person baprised is in the water. Their church governinent and discipline are the fame with those of the English baptiits, except that every brother is allowed to speak in the congregation ; and their best speaker is usually ordained to be their minister. They have deacons, deaconefles (from among their ancient widow's) and exporters, who are all licenfed to use their gifts ftatedly. On the whole, notwithttanding their peculiarities, they appear to be humble, well-meaning christians, and have acquired the chancier of the Harmlifs Tunkers.
Their principal fettlement is at Ephrata, fometimes called Tunkerstown, in Lancaster county, fixty ipiles wellward of Philadelphia. It consists of about forty buildings, of which three are places of worship : One is called Sharon, and adjoins the fister's apartinent as a chapel ; another, belonging to the brother's apartment, called Bethany. To these the brethren and ffers resort, fepasarely, to worship morning and evening, and sometimes in the night. "The third is a common church, called Zion, where all in the settlement meet once a week for public worship. The brethren have adopred tlie White Friars' dress, with some alterations; the filters, that of the nuos; and both, like crem, have taken the vow of celibacy. All, however, do not keep the row.
When they marry; they leave their cells and go among the married people. They sublin by cultivating their lands, by attending a printing-office, a grist mill,
a paper mill, an oil mill, &c. and the sisters by spinning, weaving, sewing, &c. They, at first, flept on board couches, but now on beds, and have otherwise abated much of their former feverity. This is the congregation who keep the seventh day Sabbath. Their finging is charming, owing to the pleasantness of their voices, the variety of parts, and the devout manner of performance. Besides this congregation at Ephrata, there were, in 1770, fourteen others in various other
parts of Pennsylvania, and some in Maryland. The whole, exclusive of those in Maryland, amounted to upwards of 2coo souls.
The MENNONISTS derive their name from Menno Simon, a native of Witmars in Germany, a man of learning, born in the year 1505, in the time of the reformation by Luther and Calvin. He was a famous Roman Catholic preacher till about the year 1531, when he became a Baptilt. Some of his followers came into Penntvivania from New York, and settled at Germantown, as early as 1692. This is at present their principal congregation, and the mother of the rest. Their whole number, in 1770, in Pennsylvania, was upwards of 4000, divided into thirteen churches, and forty-two congregations, under the care of fifteen ordained minifters, and fifty three licenced preachers.
The Mennonilts do not, like the Tunkers, hold the doctrine of general salvation; yet like them, they will neither swear nor fight, nor bear any civil office, nor go to law, nor take interest for the money they lend, though many break this last rule. Some of them wear their beards; wash each others feet, &c. and all use plainness of speech and dress. Some have been expelled their society for wearing buckles in their shoes, and having pocket holes in their coats. Their church government is democratical, They call themselves the Harmless christians, Revengeless christians, and Weaponless christians. They are Baptifts rather in name than in fact; for they do not use immersion. Their common mode of baprism is this: The person to be baptized kneels; the minitter holds his hands over him, into which the deacon pours water, which runs through upon the head of the person kneeling. After this, follow impofition of hands and prayer.
Literary, Humane, and other useful Societies.] These are more numerous, and flourishing in Pennsylvania, than in any of the Thirteen States. The names of these improving inftitutions, the times when they were established, and a summary of the benevolent designs they were intended to accomplish, will be mentioned in their order.
1. THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, HELD AT PHILADELPHIA, FOR
This fociety was formed January 2d,' 1769, by the union of two other literary societies that had subited for foine time in Philadelphia; and were created one body corporate and politic, with such powers, privileges, and immunities as are necesary for answering the valuable purpoles which the fociety had originally in view, by a charter, granted by the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, on the 15th of March, 1780. This fociety have already published two very valuable volumes of their transactio:s; one in 1771, ile other 1786.
In 1771, this fociety consisted of nearly 300 members ; and upwards of 120 hare fince been added; a large proportion of which, are foreign
ers of the first distinction in Europe. This is an evidence of the increaks ing respectability and improvement of the society.
Their charter allows them to hold lands, gifts, &c. to the amount of the clear yearly value of ten thousand bushels of wheat. The number of members is not limited.
2. THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING POLITICAL ENQUIRIES; confisting of fifty members, instituted in February, 1787.
3. The CallEGE OF PHYSICIANS, instituted in 1787, for the premotion of medical, anatomical and chemical knowledge.
4. THE UNION LIBRARY COMPANY OF PHILADELPHIA, which was begun in 1731, incorporated by the proprietors of the province in 1742, and united with other companies, upon a similar establishment, in 1769. The number of members in 1773 was upwards of 400. They poffefs (except the library of Harvard college) the most valuable collection of books in America, consisting of upwards of 7000 volumes, which are kept in Carpenters Hall. L'nder the same roof they have a museuin, containing a collection of curious medals, manuscripts, ancient relicks, fosils, &c. and a philosophical apparatus.
S: THE PENNSYLVANIA Hospital, a humane institution, which was first meditated in 1750, and carried into effect by means of a liberal subscription of about £. 3000, and by the asliftance of the affembly, who in 1751, granted as much more for the purpofe. The present building was begun in 1754, and finished in 1756. This hospital is under the direction of twelve managers, chosen annually, and is visited every year by a committee of the affembly. The accounts of the managers are submitted to the inspection of the legislature. Six physicians attend gratis, and generally prescribe twice or three times in a week, in their turns. This hospital is the general receptacle of lunatics and madmen, and of those affected with other disorders, and are unable to support themselves. Here they are humanely treated, and well provided for.
6. The PHILADELPHIA DISPENSARY, for the medical relief of the poor. This benevolent inftitution was established on the 12th of April, 1786, and is supported by annual subscriptions of thirty-five fillings each person. No less than 1800 patients were admitted, within sixteen months after the first opening of the dispensary. It is under the direcljon of twelve managers, and fix physicians, all of whom attend gratis, This inftitution exhibits an application of something like the mechanical powers, to the purposes of humanity. The greatest quantity of good is produced in this way with the least money. Five hundred pounds a year detrays all the expences of the institution. The poor are taken care of in their own houses, and provide every thing for themselves, except medicines, cordial drinks, &c.
7. The PENNSYLVANIA Society for promoting the ABOLITION OF SLAVERY, and the relief of Free NEGRUES unlawfully held in bondage. This fociety was begun in 1774, and enlarged on the 2 3d of April, 1787. The officers of the society confilt of a president, two vice-presidents, two secretaries, a treasurer, four counsellors, an electing committee of twelve, and an acting committee of fix members; all of whom, except the last, are to be chofen annually by ballot, on the first Monday in January, The fociety meet quarterly, and each member contributes ten shillings
anually, in quarterly payments, towards defraying its contingent expences.
The legislature of this state have favoured the humane designs of this fociety, by An Act for the gradual Abolition of Slavery ; passed on the iit of March, 1780; wherein, among other things, it is ordained, that no person born within the state, after the passing of the act, shall be considered as a servant for life ; and all perpetual llavery is, by this act, for ever abolished. The act provides, that those who would, in case this act had not been made, have been born servants or slaves, shall be deemed such, till they shall attain to the age of twenty-eight years; but they are to be treated in all respects as servants bound by indenture
for four years.
8. THE SOCIETY OF THE UNITED BRETHREN for propagating the Gospel among the Heathens, instituted in 178", to be held ftatedly at Bethlehem. An act, incorporating this fociety, and investing it with all necessary powers and privileges for accomplishing its pious designs, was passed by the legislature of the state, on the 27th of February, 1788. They can hold lands, houses, &c. to the annual ainount of two thousand pounds.
These pious Brethren, commonly called Moravians, began a milion among the Mahikan, Wampano, Delaware, Shawanoe, Nantikok, and other Indians, near fifty years ago, and were so successful as to add inore than one thousand souls to the christian church by baptism. Six hundred of these have died in the christian faith ; about 300 live with the misfionaries near Lake Erie, and the rest are either dead or apoftates in the wilderness *
9. The PENNSYLVANIA SOCIETY for the Encouragement of Manufac. tures and useful Arts, instituted in 1787, open for the reception of every, citizen of the United-States, which will fulfil the engagements of a member of the fame. The society is under the direction of a president, four vicepresidents, and twelve managers, besides subordinate officers. Each member, on his admission, pays ten shillings at least into the general fund; and the fame fum annually, till he fall cease to be a member. Besides this, they have a manufacturing fund, made up of subscriptions of not less than ten pounds, for the purpose of establishing factories in suitable places, for the employment of the industrious poor. The subscribers have all the profits arising from the business. The meetings of this society are held quarterly:
Besides these, there is a Society FOR ALLEVIATING THE MISERIES OF PRISONS; and a HUMANE SOCIETY, for recovering and restoring to life the bodies of drowned persons; instituted in 1770, under the direction of thirteen managers.
Also, an Agricultural Society ; a Society for German Emigrants; a Marine Society, consisting of Captains of vessels; a Charitable Society for the Support of the Widows and Families of Presbyterian Clergymen ; and St. George's, St. Patrick's, and St. Andrew's Charitable Societies; also the Suciety of Free and Accepted Masons,
* An affetting history of the Brethren's miffion among the Indians, will Jbortly be publishedha Y 4
Colleges, Academies, and Schools.] From the enterprizing and literary spirit of the Pennsylvanians, we should naturally conclude, what is fact, that there are numerous.
In Philadelphia is a UNIVERSITY, founded during the war. Its funds were partly given by the ftate, and partly taken from the old college of Philadelphia.
A medical school, which was founded in 1765, is attached to the university; and has professors in all the branches of medicine, who prepare the students (whose number, yearly, is 50 or 60) for degrees in that science.
DICKINSON COLLEGE, at Carlisle, 120 miles weftward of Philadelphia, was founded in 1783, and has a principal — three professors—a philosophical apparatus—a library, confisting of nearly 3000 volumes-four thousand pounds in funded certificates, and 10,000 acres of land; the laft, the donation of the ftate. In 1787, there were eighty students belonging to this college. This number is annually increaling. It was named after his excellency John Dickinson, formerly president of this state,
In 1787, a college was founded at Lancaster, 66 miles from Philadelphia, and honoured with the name of FRANKLIN COLLEGE, after his excellency Dr. Franklin. This college is for the Germans; in which they may educate their youth in their own language, and in conformity to their own habits. The English language, however, is taught in it. Its endowments are nearly the same as those of Dickinson college. Its trustees con ft of Lutherans, Calvinists, and English ; of each an equal number. The principal is a Lutheran, and the vice-principal is a Calvinilt. This college, as it concentres the whole German intereft, and has ample funds to support professors in every branch of science, has flattering prospects of growing importance and extensive utility.
In Philadelphia, belides the university and medical school already mentioned, there is the PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL ACADEMY, a very flourishing institution—THE ACADEMY FOR YOUNG LADIES—Another for the Friends or Quakers, and one for the Germans ; besides five free schools, one for the people called Quakers, one for Presbyterians, one for Catholics, one for Germans, and one for Negroes. 'l he Epifcopalians have an academy at York-town, in York-county. There is also an academy at German-town, another at Fittiburgh, and another at Washington; these are endowed by donations from the legislature, and by liberal contributions of individuals.
The schools for young men and women in Bethlehem and Nazareth, under the direction of the people called Moravians, have already been mentioned, and are decidedly upon the best establishment of any schools in America. Besides these, there are private schools in different parts of the state; and to promote the education of poor children, the state have appropriated a large tract of land for the ettablishment of free schools. A great proportion of the labouring people among the Germans and Irith, are, however, extremely ignorant.
Chief Towns.] Philadelphia is the Capital, not only of this, but of the United States. It is situated on the west bank of the river Delaware, on an extensive plain, about 118 miles (some say more) from the sea. The