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Indian com planted in it. The season for planting this grain is about ths
20th of May ---li grows generally on new ground, with but little cultiva-
tion, and yields in the month of October following, from 40 to 50 busnel.
per acre. After the first of September it affords a good deal of nourish.
ment to his family, in its green or unripe state, in the form of what is
called rufting ears. His family is fed during the summer by a small
quantity of grain, which he carries with him, and by fish and game.
His cows and horses feed upon wild grass, or the succulent twigs of the
woods. For the first year he endures a great deal of distress from hunger
---cold-and a variety of accidental causes, bui he feldom complains or
links under them. As he lives in the neighbourhood of Indians, he foon
acquires a strong tincture of their manners. His exertions, while they
continue, are violent; but they are fucceeded by long intervals of rest,
His pleasures conlitt chicfy in fishing and hanting. He loves fpirituous
liquors, and he ears, drinks and sleeps in dirt and rags in his little cabbin.
In his intercourse with the world he manifests all the art which charac-
terize the Indians of our country. In this situation he paffes two or
three years. In proportion as population increases around him, he be-
comes uneasy and dillatistied. Formerly his cattle ranged at large, but
now his neighbours call upon him to confine them within fences, to pre-
rent their trespafing upon their fields of grain. Formerly he fed' his
family with wild animals, but thefe, which fly from the face of man,
now cease to afford him an easy subsistence, and he is compelled to raise
domestic animals for the fupport of his family. Above all, he revolts
against the operation of laws. He cannot bear to surrender up a single
natural right for all the benefits of government; and therefore he aban-
dons his litile settlement, and seeks a retreat in the woods, where he
again submits to all the toils whic have beun mentioned. There are
inttances of many men who have broken ground on bare creation, not
less than four different times in this way, in diferent and more advanced
pirts of the fiate. It has been remarked, that the flight of this class of
people is always inercafed by the preaching of the gospel. This will
not surprize us when we consider low oppolite its precepts are to their
licentious manner of living. If our fira fitiler was the owner of the spot
of land which he began to cultivate, he fells it at a considerable profit ta
bis fuccellor; but if (as is oftener the cafc) he was a tenant to fume rich
landholder, he aandoes it in debt; however, the small improvements he
leaves behind him, generally make it an object of immediate demand to
a second species of fettler.
This fpecies of feitler is generally a man of some property;

he

pay's one third or one fourth part in cath for his plantation, which consists of three or four hundred acres, and the rest in gales or initaiments, as it is called here; that is, a certain fum yearly, without intereft, till the whole is paid. The first obicct of this settler is to build an addition to liis cab. bin; this is done with hewed logs: and as faw mills generally follow settlements, his floors are made of boards; his roof is made of what are called clapboards, which are a kind of coarse Tingles, split out of mort oak logs. This house is divided by two floors, on cach of which are two rooms : under the whole is a cellar walled with stone. The cabbin feries as a kitchen to this house, Hin yext object is to clear a little mea

dow

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dow ground, and plant an orchard of two or three hundred apple-trees. His flable is likewise enlarged; and, in the course of a year or two, he builds a large log barn, the roof of which is commonly thatched with rye straw: he moreover encreases the quantity of his arable land; and, instead of cultivating Indian corn alone, he raises a quantity of wheat and rye: the latter is cultivated chiefly for the purpofe of being distilled into wiskey. This species of settler by no means extracts all from the earth, which it is able and willing to give. His fields yield but a scanty increase, owing to the ground not being fufficiently ploughed. The hopes of the year are often blasted by his cattle breaking through his half-made fences, and deftraying his grain. His horses perform but half the labour chat might be expected from them, if they were better fed ; and his cattle often die in the spring from the want of provision, and the delay of grass. His house, as well as his farm, bear many marks of a weak tone of mind. His windows are unglazed, or, if they have had glass in them, the ruins of it are supplied with old hats or pillows. This species of settler is seldom a good member of civil or religious fociety: with a large portion of an hereditary mechanical kind of religion, he neglects to contribute sufficiently towards building a church, or maintaining a regular adminiftration of the ordinances of the gospel: he is equally indifposed to support civil government: with high ideas of liberty, he refuses to bear his proportion of the debt contracted by its establishment in our country: he delights chiefly in company---sometimes drinks fpirituous liquors to excess—will spend a day or two in every week, in attending political meetings; and thus le contracts debts, which, (if he cannot discharge in a depreciated paper currency) compel him to fell his plantation, generally in the course of a few years, to the third and last fpecies of fettler.

This species of fettler is commonly a man of property and good character; sometimes he is the son of a wealthy farmer in one of the interior and ancient counties of the state. His first object is to convert every Spot of ground, over which he is able to draw water, into meadow: where this cannot be done, he selects the most fertile spots on the farm, and devotes it by manure to that purpose. His next object is to build a barn, which he prefers of stone. This building is, in some instances, one hundred feet in front, and forty in depth: it is made very compact, so as to shut out the cold in winter; for our farmers find that iheir horses and cattle, when kept warm, do not require near as much food, as when they are exposed to the cold. He uses æconomy, likewise, in the confumption of his wood. Hence he keeps himself warm in winter, by means of stoves, which save an immense deal of labour to himself and his horses, in cutting and hawling wood in cold and wet weather. His fences are every where repaired, so as to secure his grain from his own and his neighbour's cattle. But further, he increases the number of the articles of his coltivation, and, instead of raising corn, wheat, and rye alone, he raises oats, buck-wheat (the fagopyrum of Linnæus) and speits. Near his house, he allots an acre or two of ground for a garden, in which he raises a large quantity of cabbage and potatoes.

His newly cleared fields afford him every year a large increase of turnips. Over the spring which supplies him with water, he builds a milk house: hę

likewise

likewise adds to the number, and improves the quality of his fruit-trees : his sons work by his fide all the year, and his wife and daughters forsake the dairy and the spinning-wheel, to share with him in the toils of harvest. The last object of his induftry is to build a dwelling-house. This business is sometimes effected in the course of his life, but is oftener bequeathed to his son, or the inheritor of his plantation; and hence we have a common saying among our best farmers, • that a son should always begin where his father left off;' that is, he should begin his improvements, by building a commodious dwelling-house, suited to the improvements and value of the plantation. This dwelling-house is generally built of fone; it is large, convenient, and filled with useful and fubftantial furniture; it sometimes adjoins the houfe of the second settler, but is frequently placed at a little distance from it. The horses and cattle of this species of fettler, bear marks in their strength, fat, and fruitfulness-of their being plentifully fed and carefully kept. His table abounds with a variety of the best provisions ; his very kitchen flows with milk and honey; beer, cyder, and wine are the usual drinks of his family: the greatest part of the cloathing of his family is manufactured by his wife and daughters. In proportion as he increases in wealth, he values the protection of laws: hence he punctually pays his taxes towards the support of government. Schools and churches likewise, as the means of promoting order and happiness in fociety, derive a due support from him: for benevolence and publice spirit, as to these objects, are the natural offspring of afluence and independence. Of this class of settlers are two thirds of the farmers of Pennsylvania : these are the men to whom Pennsylvania owes her ancient fame and consequence. If they poffefs less refinement than their southern neighbours, who cultivate their Jands with Naves, they poffefs more republican virtue. It was from the farms cultivated by these men, that the American and French armies were fed chiefly with bread during the late revolution : and it was from the produce of these farms, that those millions of dollars were obtained from the Havanna after the year 1780, which laid the foundation of the bank of North America, and which fed and cloathed the American army, till the glorious peace of Paris.

This is a short account of the happiness of a Pennsylvania farmer; to this happiness our state invites men of every religion and country. We do not pretend to offer emigrants the pleasure of Arcadia ; it is enough if affluence, independence, and happiness are insured to patience, industry, and labour. The moderate price of land *, the credit which

arises * The unoccupied lands are sold by the fate for about fix guineas, inclufive of all charges, per hundred acres. But as most of the lands that are settled, are procured from persons who had purchased them from the flare, they are fold to the first settler for a much bigher price. The quality of the foil; its viciwily to mills, court-houses, places of Worship, and navigable water : the distance of land carriage to the sea-ports of Philadelphia or Baltimore, and the nature of the roads, all influence the price of land to the first settler. The quantity of cleared land, and the nature of the improvements, added to all the above circumfrances, influence the price of farms to the second and third fettlers. Hence the 9

price

arifes from prudence, and the fafety from our courts of law, of every species of property, render the blesings which I have described, objects within the reach of every man.

From a review of the three different species of settlers, it appears, that there are certain regular ftages which mark the progress from the savage to civilized life. The first settler is nearly related to an Indian in his manners. In the second, the Indian manners are more diluted. It is in the third species of fertlers only, that we behold civilization completed. It is to the third species of settlers only, that it is proper to apply the term of farmers.

While we record the vices of the first and second settlers, it is but just to mention their virtues likewise. Their mutual wants produce mutual dependence: hence they are kind and friendly to each other-their folitary situation makes visitors agreeable to them; hence they are hospitable to strangers; their want of money (for they raise but little more than is necessary to support their families) has made it necessary for them to associate for the purposes of building houses, cutting their grain, and the like. This they do in turns for each other, without

any other

pay than the pleasures which usually attend a country frolic. Perhaps, what I have called virtues, are rather qualities arifing from neceflity, and the peculiar state of society in which these people live. Virtue should, in all cases, be the offspring of principle.

I do not pretend to say, that this mode of settling farms in Pennsylvania is universal. I have known some instances where the first fettler has performed the improvements of the second, and yielded to the third. I have known a few instances likewise, of men of enterprizing spirits, who have settled in the wilderness, and who, in the course of a single life, have advanced through all the intermediate stages of improvement that I have mentioned, and produced all those conveniencies which have been ascribed to the third species of settlers ; thereby resembling, in their exploits, not only the pioneers and light-infantry, but the main body of an army. There are instances, likewise, where the first settlenient has been improved by the same family, in hereditary succession, till it has reached the third stage of cultivation. There are many spacious stone houses, and highly cultivated farms in the neighbouring counties of the city of Philadelphia, which are possessed by the grandsons and greatgrandsons of men who accompanied William Penn across the ocean, and who laid the foundation of the prefent improvements of their pofterity, "in fuch cabins as have been described.

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price of land to the forf settler is from a quarter of a guinea to i tuo guineas per acre; and the price of farms is from one guinea to ten guineas per acre, to the second and third fetilers, according as the land is varied by the beforementioned circumstances. When the forf jettler is unable to purchase, be often takes a tract of land for seven years on a lease, and contracts, instead of paying a rent in cap, to clear fifty acres of land, to build a log cabin, and á barn, and : plant an orchard on it. This trad, after the expiration of this lease, sells er renis for a confiderable profit,

This

This passion, frange and new as it may appear to an European, is wisely calculated for the extension of population in America : and this it does, not only by promoting the increase of the human fpecies in new settlements, but in the old settlement likewise. While the degrees of industry and knowledge in agriculture, in our country, are proportioned to farms of from 75 to 300 acres, there will be a languor in population, as foon as farmers multiply beyond the number of farms of the above dimenfions. To remove this languor, which is kept up alike by the increase of the price, and the division of farms, a migration of part of the community becomes absolutely necessary. And as this part of the community often consists of the idle and extravagant, who eat without working, their removal, by increasing the facility of subsistence to the frugal and industrious who remain behind, naturally increases the number of people, just as the cutting off the fuckers of an apple-tree increases the size of the tree and the quanti'y of fruit.

I have only to add upon this subject, that the migrants from Pennsylvania always travel to the fouthward. The soil and climate of the western parts of Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia, afford a more eafy support to lazy farmers, than the stubborn but durable soil of Pennfylvania. Here our ground requires deep and repeated ploughing to render it fruitful; there scratching the ground once or twice attords tolerable crops. In Pennsylvania, the length and coldness of the winter makes it necessary for the farmers to bestow a large Mare of their labour in providing for, and feeding their cattle; but in the southern states, cattle find pasture during the greatest part of the winter in the fields or woods. For these reasons, the greatest part of the western counties of the ftates that have been mentioned, are settled by original inhabitants of Pennsylvania. During the late war, the militia of Orange county, in North Carolina, were enrolled, and their number amounted to 3500, Fery man of whom had migrated from Pennsylvania. From this you will fee, that our liare is the great outport of the United States for Europeans; and that, after performing the office of a fiere, by detaining all those people who poffefs the ftamina of industry and virtue, it allows a passage to the rest, to those states which are accommodated to their habits of indolence and vice.

I shall conclude this letter by remarking, that in the mode of extending population and agriculture, which I have described, we behold a netv species of war. The third settler may be viewed as a conqueror. The weapons with which he atchieves his conquests, are the implements of husbandry: and the virtues which direct them, are industry and economy. Idleness, extravagance and ignorance fly before him. Happy would it be for mankind, if the kings of Europe would adopt this mode of extending their territories: it would soon put an end to the dreadful connection, which has existed in every age, between war and poverty, and between conquest and desolation *.'

These observations are equally applicable to the progress of the settlements in all new countries.

* See Col. Mag. Vol. I. p. 117.

Religion.

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