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the state. A road is also cutting from the mouth of the Tyoga, southward, to the mouth of Loyal, a branch of the west branch of Sasquehannah. Another road is cutting from Huntingdon-town, on Frankstown branch of the Juniatta, westward thirty miles, to a navigable branch of the Allegany.
Thus the well judged policy of this state, is paving the way for the settlement of all their walte lands. And to evidence their benevolence, and their wishes to have the advantages of education increafed, and more extensively enjoyed, they have allotted 60,000 acres of these waste lands for the use of public schools ; and above 60,coo more have been granted for that purpole, and to the societies established for the promotion of knowledge, the arts, religion, &c.
In addition to the common observation, that the natural growth of this state is fimilar to that of New-Jersey and New-Yorti, which is indeed the case in most respects, it may be said, that there are in Pennsylvania great bodies of sugar-maple, particularly in the counties of Northampton, Luzerne, Northumberland and Wainington, which yield a welltasted and wholesome sugar, to profit.
Cumberland and Franklin valley is timbered principally with locuit, black walnut, hickory and white oak. The mountainous parts are covered with pines, chesnuts, &c.
The produce from culture, consists of wheat, which is the staple commodity of the fiate, some rye, Indian corn, buck-wheat, oats, speltz *, barley, which is now raised in greater quantities than formerly, occafioned by the vast consumption of it by the breweries in Philadelphia, herp, fax, and vegetables of all the various kinds common to the climate. Pennsylvania is a good grazing country, and great numbers of cattle are fed, and large dairics are kept, but their beef, pork and cheese, are not reckoned so good as those of Connecticut and the other parts of NewEngland; but their butter has been fupposed superior.
Climate, difeales, longevity', c.] Nothing ditierent from that of Conpećticut; except, that on the west side of the mountains, the weather is much more regular. The inhabitants never feel those quick transitions from cold to heat, by a change of the wind from north to fouth, as those so frequently experience, who live eastward of the mountains, and near the fea. The hot fouthwardly winds get chilled by pafling over the long chain of Allegany mountains.
It has been observed that Pennsylvania is now more unhealthy than formerly; that bilious and remitting lerers, which a few years ago appeared chiefly in the neighbourhood of rivers, creeks and mill-ponds, now appear in parts remotc from them all, and in the highest situations. This change has been traced to three causes: First, To the increase of mill-ponds. Till these were established, intermittents, in feveral counties in Pennsylvania, were unknown. Secondly, To the clearing of the country. It has been remarked, that intermittents on the shores of the Susquehannah, have kept an exact pace with the passages which have been opened for the propagation of niarth cfluvia, by cutting down the wood which formerly grew in its neighbourhood. A distinction,
* See this kind of grain drscribed, Page 53.
however, is to be made between clearing and cultivating a country. While clearing a country makes it fickly in the manner that has been mentioned, cultivating a country, that is, draining swamps, destroying weeds, burning brush, and exhaling the unwholesome and superfluous moisture of the earıhı, by means of frequent crops of grain, gralles and, vegetables of all kinds, render it healthy. Several parts of the United States have presled through the several itages that have been described The first settlers received their country from the hand of nature, pure and healthy, Fevers foon followed their improvements, nor were they finally banished, until the higher degrees of cultivation took place. Nor even then, where the falutary effects of callivation were rendered abortive by. the neighbourhood of mill-ponds.
As a third cause of this increase of fevers, the unequal quantities of rain which have fallen of late years, has been assigned. While the creeks and rivers were confined within steady bounds, there was little or no exhalation of febrile miasmata from their shores. But the dry fummers of 1780, 1781, and 1782, by reducing the rivers and creeks far below their ancient marks; while the wet springs of 1784 and 1785, by swelling them beyond their natural heights, have, when they have fallen, as in the former case, left a large and extensive surface of moist ground exposed to the action of the sun, and of course to the generation and exhalation of febrile miasınata *. This state, having been settled but little more than a hundred years,
is not sufficiently old to determine from facts the itare of longevity. Among the people called Quakers, who are the oldeft settlers, there are instances of longevity, occasioned by their living in the old, cultivated counties, and the temperance imposed on them by their religion. There are fewer long-lived people among the Germans, than among other nations, occasioned by their excess of labour and low diet. They live chiefly opon vegetables and watery food, that affotds too little nourishment to repair the walte of their trength by hard labour.
Nearly one half of the children born in Philadelphia, die umier two years of age, and chiefly with a disease in the stomach and Lowels. Very few die at this age in the country.
Population, character, manneri, &c.] In the grand convention which was held in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787, the inhabitants in Pennsylvania were reckoned at 360,000. It is probable they are now more numerous: perhaps 400,000. If we fix them at this, the population for every square mile will be only nine ; by which it appears that Pennsylvania is only one-fifth as populous as Connecticut.
But Connecticuć was settled nearly half a century before Pennsyle vania; fo that in order to do justice to Pennsylvania in the comparison, we must anticipate her probable population fifty years hence. At this period, if we admit that the number of inhabitants is doubled once in twenty-five years, by natural increase, without the aid of foreign emis grations, the population will be equal to thirty-fix for every fouare mile, Add to this, 400,000 for the increase by emigrants and their defcen.'
* Enquiry into the confes of the increase of fevers in Peuufylvania,
dents, which is probably not too large a number, considering the length
1760, 1770, 1779, and 1786*.
1786 Philadelphia city 8,321
S 3,681 and county, S
27,066 4,516 Bucks county,
6,378 6,268 Lancaster,
6,281 6,254 Cumberland,
3,939 Berks, 3,016
4,732 Northampton, 1,987 2,793
3,600 3,967 Bedford,
1,201 2,632 Northumberland,
2,111 2,653 Washington,
Total, 31,667 39,765 54,683
66,925 The number of militia in Pennsylvania, are reckoned at 85,000, between eighteen and fifty-three years of age.
The inhabitants of Pennsylvania conliit of emigrants from England, Ireland, Germany and Scotland. The Friends and Episcopalians are chiefly of English extraction, and compose about one-third of the ine habitants. They live principally in the city of Philadelphia, and in the
* So often have the counties of this fate been divided and subdivided and the boundaries altered, that a comparison in this statement can hardly be made, except between the several totals : as, for instance, it would appear from the above table that Philadelphia county had decreased in population between tbe years 1779 and 1786—whereas the contrary is the case for Montgomery county was struck off from it. The same is obferrable of all the counties wherein a decrease appears. of No return,