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is an old waggon road, cut by the French in the war of 1755. The lands on French Creck are very fertile, and mostly cleared, which is an evidence that its former Indian indiabitants were numerous. Fourteen miles from the mouth of this creek is a gentle rapid, thence to its mouth, it is low, decp and smooth.
Before he leave this interesting head concerning rivers, we cannot omit infirting the observations of Mr. Charles Thomson, secretary of Congress. Besides the three channels mentioned (page 45) between the western waters, and the Atlantic, there are two others, to which the Pennsylvanians are turning their attention; one from Presque-ille, on Lake Erie, to Le Bouf, down the Allegany to Kilkiminitas, then up the Kikininitas, and from thence, by a small portage, to Juniatta, which falls into the Sufquchannah: The other from Lake Ontario to the cat branch of the Delware, and down that to Philadelphia. Both these are said to be very practicable; and, considering the enterprising temper of the Pennsylvanians, and particularly of the merchants of Philadelphia, whose object is concentered in promoting the commerce and trade of one city, it is not improbable but one or both of these communications will be opened and improred *. '
There is said to be ftill another communication equally as practicable as either of the others; and that is between the southern branch of the Tyoga and a branch of the Allcgany, the head waters of which, are -but a short distance from each other. The Seneca Indians say, they can walk four times in a day, from the boatable waters of the Ohio, to those of the Tyoga, at the place now mentioned. And between the Su quehannah, just before it crosses into Pennsylvania the first time, and the Delaware, is a portage of only twelve miles.
One remark must not be omitted here, and that is, that in all the back country, waters of this ttate, even in those high up in the mountains, marine petrifactions may be found in great abundance.
Swamps.] The only swainps worth noticing, are, the Great Swamy, between Northampton and Luzerne counties, and Buffaloe wamp in the morth-western parts of Northumberland county, near the head waters of the wett branch of the Susquehannah. These swamps, on examination and furvey, are found to be bodies of rich farm land, thickly covered with beach and sugar maple.
Mountains, face of the country, soil and prodnations. ] As much as nearly one thiri of ihis fiate may be called mountainous ; particularly the counties of Bedford, Huntingdon, Cumberland, part of Franklin, Dauphin, and part of Backs and Northampton, through which pass, under various names, the numerous ridges and spurs, which collectively form what · we chuse to call, for the sake of clearness, the GREAT RANCÉ OF ALLEGANY MOUNTAINS. The principal ridges in this range, in Pennsylvania, are the Kitiatinny, or Blue mountain, which pass north of Nazareth in Northampton county, and pursae a fouth-weit course, across the Lehigh, through Dauphin county, just above Louisburgh, thence on the west side of the Susquehannah through Cumberland and Franklin counties. Back of these, and nearly parallel with them, are Peters, Tuscarora and Nescopek mountains, on the eait of the Susquehannah; and on the well, . * See Appendix to Mr. Jefferson's lotes on l'irginia. No.l.
Shareman's Shareman's hills, Sideling hills, Ragged, Great Warriors, Evits and Wills mountains; then the great Allegany ridge, which being the largeit, gives its name to the whole range; west of this are the Laurel and Chernut ridges. Between the Juniatta and the west branch of the Susquehannah are Jacks, Tusses, Nittiny and Bald Eagle inountains. The vales between these mountains are generally of a rich, black foil, suited to the various kinds of grain and grass. Some of the mountains will admit of cultivation almost to their tops.
There is a remarkable difference between the country on the east and weft side of the range of mountains we have just been describing. Between these mountains and the lower falls of the rivers which run into the Atlantic, not only in this but in all the southern states, are several ranges of stones, sand, earths and minerals, which lie in the utmost confusion. Beds of fone, of vait extent, particularly of lime-itone, have their several layers broken in pieces, and the fragments thrown confusedly in every direction. Between these lower falls and the ocean, is a very extentive collection of rand, clay, mud and shells, partly thrown up by the waves of the sea, partly brought down by floods from the upper country, and partly produced by the decay of vegetable substances. The country westward of the Allegany mountains, in these respects, is totally different. It is very irregular, broken and variegated, but there are no mountains; and when viewed from the most western ridge of the Allegany, it appears to be a vast extended plain. All the various ftrata of stone appear to have lain undisturbed in the situation wherein they were first formed. The layers of clay, sand and coal, are nearly horizontal, Scarcely a single inítance is to be found to the contrary. Detached rocks are indeed fourd here in all situations, as well as eaitward of the mountains; but these are only such as lie near the surface, and being undermined by the waters, have tumbled from their original places. Every appearance, in short, tends to confirm the opinion, that the original crust, in which the ftone was formed, has never been bro. ken up on the west side of the mountains, as it evidently has been eaitward of them. The irregularity and unevenness of the country westward of the mountains, appear to have been the effect of water defcend. ing in heavy showers of rain. Many thousands of square miles are cut by innumerable deep drains for carrying off water, and nothing is left between them but high, freep and narrow ridges. The prodigious rains which produced this surprising effect, probably filled up the intervals between the mountains, and the preslure of the water in time, may have become so great as to have, at length, broken through the lowest and weakest parts of them; and in such places have carried away the rocks which formed the ridges, down nearly as low as the present beds of the rivers ; part of the water running eastward, and part westward, so that the principal ridge, the proper Allegany, only was left unbroken. The rocks, thus torn from their beds, appear to have been lodged within a few miles of the mountains, where at this day we find them; and the gravel, fand and earth, carried far below, and deposited in the lower country, in succession, according to their respective gravities *.
* See Col. Mag. Vol. I. P. 49.