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supreme court, are properly branches of this court, and are held hy one of the judges of it, except that in the courts of oyer and terminer, some of the gentlemen of the county are always added in the commillion, as afliftants to the judge ; but they cannot hold the court without him.
Fifthly, Orphan's Courts, lately established by act of assembly; are held by the judges of the court of common pleas, ex officio, and have cognizance of alt matters relating to wills, administrations, &c.
Sixthly, Court of Chancery, held by the governor ex officio, always open, It is a court of law and equity, founded on the same principles, and governed by the same rules, as the court of chancery in England.
Seventhly, High Court of Errors and Appeals, composed of the governor, and feven of the council, and is a court of appeals in the last resort, in all cases of law.
All the English laws which had been practised nupo in the state, nda which were not repugnant to revolution principles, were adopted by the constitution, and very few alterations of consequence have fince been made, except in the descent of real estates, which, instead of descending to the eldest son, agreeably to the old feudal fyftem, as formerly, are now divided (where there is no will) equally among the children, both male and female, except that the eldest son has two fares; a mode of descent much more confiftent with republican principles.
Military strength.] The military strength of New-Jersey consists only of the militia about 30,000 in number, who have been too much neg. lected since the war.
Revenue.] About 4.10,000 are raised annually for the support of government, and for the payment of incidental charges, and of the pen. fions of those who were disabled in the public service during the war ; and about 6-44,000 raised annually for the payment of the interest on the public debt of this state, and their quota of the debt of the United States. *This revenue is raised by a tax on lands, iron works, mills, distilleries,, breweries, ferries, fisheries, carriages, stages, taverns, horses, cattle, &c.
History.] It is a talk of no small difficulty to give the reader a just view of the history of New Jersey. Dr. Douglafs observes, in great truth, that • the affairs of this colony have always been in a contused state, which occasions an unavoidable confusion in its history.'
The first settlers of New-Jersey, were a number of Dutch emigrants from New York, who came over between the years 1614 and 1620, and settled in the county of Bergen. Next after these, in 1627, came orer a colony of Swedes and Finns, and settled on the river Delaware, They afterwards purchased of the Indians, the land on both sides NewSwedeland stream, (now called Delaware river) from Cape Henlopen to the falls; and, by presents to the Indian chiefs, obtained peaceable poffeffion of it. The Dutch and Swedes, though not in harmony with each other, kept possession of the country many years. In 1683, the Dutch had a house devoted to religious worship at New Castle ; the Swedes at the same time had three, besides one on the island of Tenecum, one at Christiana, and one at Wicoco. The present Swedish churches in Philadelphia and Gloucester county in New Jersey, are descendants of these firft settlers,
In March, 1634, Charles II. granted all the territory, called by the Dutch New-Netherlands, to his brother the duke of York: And in June, 1664, the duke granted that part now called New-Jersey, to Lord Berkley, of Stratton, and Sir George Carteret, jointly ; who, in 1665, agreed upon certain concessions with the people for the government of the province, and appointed Philip Carteret, Esq. their governor. He purchased considerable tracts of land from the Indians, for small confiderations, and the settlements increased.
The Dutch reduced the country in 1672 ; but it was restored by the peace of Westminster, February 9th, 1674.
In consequence of the conquest made by the Dutch, and to obviate any objections that might be made on account of it against the former grant, a new patent was issued, in 1674, to the duke of York, for the fame country. In July of this year, New-Jersey was divided, and Weft Jersey was granted, by the duke of York, to the assigns of Lord Berkley ; and Ealž Jersey to Sir G. Carteret. The division line was to run from the south-east point of Little Egg Harbour, on Barnegate Creek, being about the middle between Cape May and Sandy Hook, to a creck, a little below Ancocus creek, on Delaware river, thence about thirty-five miles, ftrait course, along Delaware river, up to 41° 40' north latitude. This line has never been settled, but has ever since continued to be a subject of contention.
In 1675, West Jersey, which had been granted to Lord Berkley, was fold to john Fenwick, in trust for Edward Bylinge. Fenwick came over with a colony, and settled at Salem. These were the first English fettlers in West Jersey. In 1676, the interest of Bylinge in West Jersey, was assigned to William Penn, Gavin Laurie, and Nicholas Lucas, as trustees, for the use of his creditors. Mutual quit claims were executed between Sir George Carteret and the trustees of Bylinge. This partition was confirmed in 1719, by an act of the general assembly of the Jerseys.
In 1678, the duke of York made a new grant of West Jersey to the assigns of Lord Berkley.
Agreeably to Sir George Carteret's will, dated December 5, 1678, East Jersey was sold, in 1682, to twelve proprietors, who by twelve separate deeds, conveyed one-half of their interest to twelve other persons, separately, in fee simple. I his grant was confirmed to these iwentyfour proprietors, by the duke of York, the same year. These twentyfour sares, by fales of small parts of them, and by these small parts being again divided among the children of successive families, became at Jait subdivided in such a manner, as that some of the proprietors had only, one-4oth part, of a 48th part of a 24th Share. Welt Jersey was in the same condition. This created much confusion in the management of the general proprietors, particularly in regard to appointing governors. These inconveniences, aided by other causes of complaint, which had been increasing for several years, and were fast advancing to a dangerous crisis, disposed the proprietors to surrender the government to the crown, which was accordingly done, and accepted by queen Ann, on the 17th of April, 1702. Till this time the government of New Jersey was proprietory; it now became royal, and so continued till the memorable fourth of July, 1776.
This state was the seat of war for several years, during the bloody conteft between Great-Britain and America. Her losses both of men and property, in proportion to the population and wealth of the state, was greater than of any other of the thirteen states. When General Washington was retreating through the Jerseys, almost forsaken by all others, her militia were at all times obedient to his orders; and for a considerable length of time composed the strength of his army. There is hardly a town in the state that lay in the progress of the British army, that was not rendered signal by some enterprize or exploit. Ac Trenton the enemy received a check which may be said with justice to have turned the tide of the war. At Princeton, the seat of the muses, they received another, which, united, obliged them to retire with precipitation, and to take refuge in disgraceful winter quarters. But whatever honour this state might derive from the relation, it is not our business to give a particular description of battles or sieges; we leave this to the pen of the historian, and only observe in general, that the many military achievements performed by the Jersey soldiers, give this ftate one of the first ranks among her sisters in a military view, and entitle her to a share of praise that bears no proportion to her size, in the accomplishment of the late glorious revolution. GOVERNORS of New-JERSEY, from the surrender of the Government by the
PROPRIETORS in 1702, to the prejent time. + Edward, viscount Cornbury, 1702 to 1708, removed, and succeeded by + John, Lord Lovelace, 1708 to 1709, died, and the government
devolved to Lt. Gov. Richard Ingoldsby, 1709 to 1710, when came in + Brigadier Robert Hunter,
1710 to 1720, who resigned in favour of + William Burnet,
1720 to 1727, removed, and succeeded by + John Montgomery,
1728 to 1731, died, and was succeeded by + William Crosby,
1731 to 1736, died, and the governinent
devolved to John Anderson, President of the Council, 1736, by whose death, about two
weeks after, the government devolved to John Hamilton, President of the Council, 1736 to 1738.
Those marked + were Governors in chief, and down to this time
were Governors of New York and New Jersey, but from 1738
forward, New Jersey has had a separate governor. + Lewis Morris,
1738 to 1746, died, and the government
devolved to John Hamilton, President, 1746, by whose deach it devolved to
John Reading, President, 1746 to 1747. + Jonathan Belcher,
1747 to 1757, died, and the government
again devolved to John Reading, President, 1757 to 1758.
Thomas Pownall, then Governor of Massachusetts, being Lieutenant-Governor, arrived on the death of Governor Belcher, buc continued in the province a few days only.
+ Francis Bernard,
1758 to 1760, removed to Bofton and
succeeded by + Thomas Boone,
1760 to 1761, removed to S. Carolina,
and succeeded by + Josiah Hardy,
1761 to 1763, removed, and succeeded by + William Franklin,
1763 to 1776, removed, and succeeded by + William Livington,
Ρ Ε Ν Ν S Y L V Α Ν Ι Α.
SITUATION and EXTENT.
Miles. Length 288
Between Breadth 156
0° 20 Eart, and 5° West Longitude. Boundaries.] B ; , by
parallel of 42° north latitude, which divides it from the state of New-York; south, by the parallel of 39° 43' 18" north latitude, which divides it from the states of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia weit, by a meridian line, drawn from the termination of five degrees of longitude, froin a point on Delaware river, near Wilmington, in the parallel of 39° 43' 18" to intersect the parallel of 42°. This fine divides the state from a part of Virginia, the Western Territory, llo called) and from a tract of land, 20 miles fquare, which was confirmed to Connecticut by Congress. The northweit corner of Pennsylvania extends about one mile and an half into Lake Erie, and is about twenty miles weit of the old French fort at Presque Ile. The state lies in the form of a parallelogram, and contains about 44,900 square miles, equal to about 28,800,000 acres.
Muies and Minerals.] The following table exhibits the number, fituation, and various kinds of mines and minerals in this state. On the west side of the mountains, vitriolic, aluminous, and other mineral earths are found in great abundance. Deds of coal, lying pretty deep, in a horizontal direction, are almost universal in this weltern country; but metallic ores of all kinds, especially that of iron, appear to be wanting; while they are found in great plenty caftward of the mountains. A very probable reason has been alligned why it should be so. It is this; The country eastward of the mountains, as hereafter mentioned, has evidently been torn to pieces by some violent convullion, while that on the other side has remained undisturbed. During this convulsion, the iron ore was probably thrown up from very great depths, where, by its gravity, it was accumulated, and coal, which lay nearer the surface, was, by the same convulsion, buried immensely deep.
Civil divisions.] Pennsylvania is divided into twenty counties, which, with their county towns, situation, &c. are mentioned in the following
Τ Α Β Ι Ε.
Settld Mines, &c.
Philadel. (City)| Philadelphia. On Delaware R.
Wilksborough. On Susquehan. R. Coal mines,
York. On Susquehan. R. (Iron ore. Carlisle. On Susquehan. R. į Lead mines&c
* A very large proportion of the vacant lands in the state are in this comity, (Northumberland to the amount of about eight milions of aereo.