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convenient chambers for the accommodation of the students, besides a dining hall, chapel room, and a room for the library. Its atuation is exceedingly pleasant and healthful. The view from the college balcony is extensive and charming.
This college has been under the care of a succession of Presidents eminent for piety and learning; and has furnished a number of Civilians, Divines, and Physicians of the first rank in America. It is remarkable, that all the Presidents of this college, except Dr. Witherspoon, who is now President, were removed by death very soon after their election into office *.
The charter for Queen's college, at Brunswick, was granted just before the war, in consequence of an application from a body of the Dutch church. Its funds, raised wholly by free donations, amounted, soon after its establishment, to four thousand pounds; but they were considerably diminished by the war. The students are under the care of President Hardenberg. The grammar-school, which is connected with the college, consists of between thirty and forty students, under the care of the trustees. This college has lately increased both in numbers and reputation.
There are a number of flourishing academies in this state. One at Trenton, in which are about eighty students in the different branches. It has a fund of about one hundred and fifty pounds per annum, arising from the interest on public securities. Another in Hakkenfak, in the county of Bergen, of upwards of an hundred fcholars. Instruction and board are said to be cheaper here than in any part of the state. There is another flourishing academy at Orangedale, in the county of Eflex, consisting of nearly as many scholars as either of the others, furnished with able instructors, and good accommodations. Another has lately been opened at Elizabeth town, and consists of upwards of twenty students in the lan-' guages, and is increasing. There is also an academy in Burlington, in which young ladies and gentlemen are taught the English language grammatically, geography, and the learned languages. Besides thele, there are grammar-ichools at Newark, Springfield, Morristown, Bordentown, and Amboy. There are no regular establishments for common schools in the itate. The usual mode of education is for the inhabitants of a village or neighbourhood to join in affording a temporary support for a school-master, upon such terms as is mutually agreeable. But the encouragement which these occasional teachers meet with, is generally fuch, as that no person of abilities adequate to the business, will undertake it; and of course, little advantage is derived from these schools, The improvement in these common schools is generally in proportion ta the wages of the teacher,
Chief Towns.] There are a number of towns in this state, nearly of cqual size and importance, and none that has more than two hundred houses, compactly built. Trenton is the largeft town in New Jersey, It is situated on the north-east side of the river Delaware, opposite the falls, nearly in the center of the state, from north to fouth, in lat. 400 15', and about 20' east of the meridian of Philadelphia. The river is not navigable above these falls, except for boats, which will carry from five to seven hundred bushels of wheat. This town, with Lamberto, which joins it on the south, contains two hundred houses, and about fifteen hundred inhabitants. Here the legislature meets, the supreme court fits, and the public offices are all Kept, except the secretary's, which is at Burlington. On these accounts, it is considered as the capital of the state. In the neighbourhood of this pleasant town, ate feve. ral gentlemen's seats, finely situated on the banks of the Delaware, and ornamented with taste and elegance. This town, being a thoroughfare between the ealtern parts of the state and Philadelphia, has a considerable inland trade.
· BURLINGTON (City) extends three miles along the Delaware, and one mile back, at right angles, into the county of Burlington, and is twenty miles above Philadelphia by water, and feventeen by land. The iland, which is the molt populous part of the city, is a mile and a quarter in length, and three quarters of a mile in breadth. It has four entrances over bridges and causeways, and a quantity of bank meadow adjoining. On the island are one hundred and fixty houses, nine hundred white, and one hundred black inhabitants. But few of the negroes are llaves. The main streets are conveniently spacious, and mostly ornamented with trees in the fronts of the houses, which are regularly arranged. The Delaware, opposite the town, is about a mile wide; and, under shelter of Mittinnicunk and Burlington Inands, affords a safe and convenient harbour. It is commodioully situated for trade, but is too near the opulent city of Philadelphia to admit of any considerable increase. There are two houses for public worship in the town, one for the Friends or Quakers, who are the most numerous, and one for Episci palians. The other public buildings are two market-houses, a cour'. house, and the best gaol in the state. Besides these, there is an academy, already mentioned, a free-school, a nail manufactory, and an excellent distillery, if that can be called excellent, which produces a poison both of health and morals.
The city is a free port. The mayor, recorder, and aldermen hold a commercial court, when the matter in controversy is between foreigners and foreigners, or between foreigners and citizens. The island of Burlington was laid out, and the firit fettlements made as early as 1677. In 1682, the island Mittinnicunk, or Free-School island, was given for the use of the island of Burlington ; the yearly profits arising from it (which amount to one hundred and eighty pounds) are appropriated for the education of poor children.
Perth AMBOY (City) took its name from James Drummond, earl of Perth; and Ambo, the Indian word for point, and stands on a peck of land iecluded between Raritan river and Arthur Kull sound. Its fitua.
tion is high and healthy. It lies open to Sandy-Hook, and has one of the best harbours on the continent. Vessels from sea may enter it in one tide, in almost any weather. Great efforts have been made, and legislative encouragements offered, to render it a place of trade, but without success. This town was early incorporated with city privileges, and continued to send two members to the general assembly until the revolution, Until this event, it was the capital of Eaft- Jersey ; and the legislature and supreme court used to sit here and at Burlington alternately,
BRUNSWICK (City) was incorporated in 1784, and is situated on the south-west side of Raritan river, twelve miles abore Amboy.
It contairs about two hundred houses, and fixteen hundred inhabitants, one half of which are Dutch. Its situation is low and unpleasant, being on the bank of the river, and under a high hill, which rises back of the
The ice, at the breaking up of the river in winter, frequently lodges on the hallow fording-place, just opposite the town, and forms a temporary dam, which occasions the water to rise many feet above its usual height, and sometimes to overflow the lower floors of those houses which are not guarded against this inconvenience, by having their foundations elevated. The water in the springs and wells is generally bad. 'The inhabitants are beginning to build on the hill above the town, which is very pleasant, and commands a pretty prospect. The citizens have a considerable inland trade, and several small vefsels belonging to the port.
PRINCETON is a pleasant, healthy village, of about eighty houses, fifty-two miles from New York, and forty-three from Philadelphia. Its public buildings are a large college edifíce of stone, already described, and a presbyterian church built of brick.
ELIZABETH-Town (City) is fifteen miles from New-York. Its situation is pleasant, and its soil is equal in fertility to any in the ftate, In the compact part of the town, there are about one hundred and fifty houses. The public buildings are, a very handsome presbyterian brick church, lately built, an episcopal church, also of brick, and an acade'my. Governor Livingston's feat is about a mile westward of the compact part of the town. Its fine situation the elegance and convenience of the buildings--the arrangement and variety of fruit-trees--the gardens ---the artificial fish-ponds, &c. discover a retined and judicious taite. Ornament and utility are happily united. It is, indeed, a feat worthy of a Republican Patriot, and of the author of the Philosophical Solitude *.'
This is one of the oldeft towns in the state. It was purchased of the Indians as early as 1664, and was settled soon after.
Newark is nine miles from New York. It is a handsome, flourishing town, about the size of Elizabeth-town, and has two presbyterian churches, one of which is of stone, and unfinished, and is the largest and moft elegant building in the state. Besides these there is an epifcopal church, a court-house and goal. This town has the fame of making the best cyder in the world.
• A celebrated Ode, written by Governor Living for in early life.
SHREWSBURY is between thirty and forty miles southwest by fouth from New York, on the sea coast, and is the largest and most populous town in the county of Monmouth. The soil in this and the neighbouring towns of Freehold and Middletown, are remarkably fertile. The inhabitants, 4321 in number, in the whole township, are a mixture of friends, episcopalians, presbyterians and methodists. Each has a house of worship. The friends are the most numerous. Among the first settlers of this town, which is one of the oldelt in the state, were a number of families from New England.
MIDDLETOWN is fifty miles east by north from Trenton, and thirty south-west by fouth from New York, adjoining Shrewsbury. SandyHook (so called from its shape and foil) is included in this township. On the point of the Hook stands the light house, one hundred feet high, built by the citizens of New York.
Practice of Physic.] There is a - Medical Society' in this state, confisting of about thirty of their most respectable physicians, who meet twice a year. No person is admitted to the practice of physic, without a licence from the suprenie court, founded on a certificate from this society, or at leait two of its members, testifying his skill and abilities. It is remarkable that in the county of Cape May, no regular physician has ever found support. Medicine lias been administered by women, except in some extraordinary cases.
Practice of Law.] No person is permitted to practise as an attorney in any court without a licence from the governor. This cannot be obtained, unless the candidate shall be above twenty-one years of age, and shall have served a regular clerkship with some licenced attorney for four years, and have taken a degree in some public college, otherwise he muft serve five years. He must also fubmit to an examination by three of the moft eminent counsellors in the state, in the presence of the judges of the supreme court. After three years practice as an attorney, lie becomes a candidate for a counsellor's licence, which is granted on a like examination. In consequence of these wise regulations, the practice of law in this state is respectable. Many of the people here, however, as in other states, think (because perhaps they are inftruments in obliging them to pay their debts) that the lawyers know too much. But their knowledge will not injure those who are innocent, and who will let them alone. Experience has verified this observation in the county of Cape May. No lawyer lives within sixty miles of that county, and it is feldom that any attend their courts. The consequence is, that no person's landed estate was ever sold in this county, by a sheriff, for the payment of a debt. It is wished that this county may ever form this fingular exception, perhaps, from all the counties in the United States.
Conftitution.] The government of this state, agreeably to their conftitution, is verted in a governor, legislative council, and general assembly. The governor is chosen annually, by the council and aliembly jointly, and is filed, “ Governor and commander in chief in and over the state of New Jersey, and the territories thereunto belonging, chancellor and ordinary in the same.” The legislative council is composed of one member from each county, chofen annually by the people. They must be worth one thousand pounds in real and personal estate within the county,
and have been freeholders and inhabitants of the counties they represent for one year. The general assembly is composed of three meinbers from each county, chosen as above; each of them must be worth five hundred pounds, in real and personal estate within the county, and have been frecholders and inhabitants as above. All these, on taking their seats in the legislature, muft swear " that he will not asent to any law, vote or proceeding, WHICH
TO HIM injurious to the public welfare of the state, or that shall annul or repeal that part of the conftitution which establishes annual elections, nor that pare respecting trial by jury, nor that part which fecures liberty of conscience.”
The governor fits in, and presides over the legislative council, and has a casting vote in their debates. His privy or executive council, is composed of any three members of the legislative council; and the governot and any feven members of the council are a court of appeals in the last resort, as to points of law io civil cases, and possess a power of pardoning criminals in all cases whatsoever. The council chuse one of their members to be vice president, who, when the governor is absent from the ftate, pofseffes the fupreme executive power. 'Phe council may originate any bills, excepting preparing and altering any money bill, which is the sole prerogative of the assembly. In every other respect their powers are equal. Every bill is read three times in each house. None of the judges of the supreme court, or other courts, sheriffs, or any person pofíefled of any post of profit under the governor, except justices of the peace, is entitled to a seat in the assembly. The estate ot'a suicide is not forfeited for his offence.
Courts of Justice, Laws, &c.] The courts of joftice in this ftate are, first, Iuftices Courts. A cmpetent number of persons are appointed in each county by the council and assembly, in joint meeting, who are called justices of the peace, and continue in office five years, who, besides being conservators of the peace, agreeably to the English laws, are authorized to hold courts for the trial of causes under twelve pounds. From this court, persons aggrieved, may appeal to the quarter feflions. Secondly, Courts of quarter fellions of the peace, are held quarterly in every county, by at least three of the justices. This court takes cognizance of breaches of the peace, and is generally regulated by the rules of the English law.
'I hirdly, Courts of common pleas, which are held quarterly, by judges appointed for that purpuse, in the fame manner as the justices of the peace, and who are commonly of their number, and hold their come missions five years. This court may be held by a single judge, and has cognizance of demands to any amount, and is constructed on, and governed by the principles of the English laws.
Fourthly, Supreme courts, which are held four times a year, at Trenton, by three judges appointed for that purpose, who hold their offices three years, but one judge only is necessary to the holding this court. This court has cognizance of all actions, both civil and criminal throughout the itate, having the united authority of the courts of king's bench, conimon pleas and cxchequer in England. The courts of oyer and tetminer and nifi prius, commonly held once a year in each county, for the trial of causes arising in the county, and brought to issue in the