« הקודםהמשך »
Chief Towns. There are a number of towns in this state, nearly of equal size and importance, and none that has more than two hundred houses, compactly built. TRENTON is the largeft town in New Jersey. It is situated on the north-east side of the river Delaware, opposite the talls, nearly in the center of the state, from north to south, in lat. 400 15', and about zo' east of the meridian of Philadelphia. The river is not navigable above these falls, except for boats, which will carry from five to seven hundred bushels of wheat. This town, with Lainberto!, which joins it on the south, contains two hundred houses, and about fifteen hundred inhabitants. Here the legislature meets, the supreme court fits, and the public offices are all kept, except the secretary's, which is at Burlington. On thcse accounts, it is considered as the capital of the state. In the neighbourhood of this pleasant town, are seve. ral gentlemen's seats, finely situated on the banks of the Delaware, and ornamented with taste and elegance. This town, being a thoroughtare between the cattern parts of the state and Philadelphia, has a considerable inland trade.
BURLINGTON (City) extends three miles along the Delaware, and one mile back, at right angles, into the county of Burlington, and is twenty miles above Philadelphia by water, and seventeen by land. The iland, which is the most populous part of the city, is a mile and a quarter in length, and three quarters of a mile in breadth. It has four entrances over bridges and causeways, and a quantity of bank meadow adjoining. On the island are one hundred and fixty houses, nine hundred white, and one hundred black inhabitants. But few of the negroes are llaves. The main streets are conveniently spacious, and mostly ornamented with trees in the fronts of the houses, which are regularly arranged. The Delaware, opposite the town, is about a mile wide; and, under shelter of Mittinnicunk and Burlington INands, affords a safe and convenient harbour. It is commodiously situated for trade, but is too near the opulent city of Philadelphia to admit of any considerable increase. There are two houses for public worship in the town, one for the Friends or Quakers, who are the most numerous, and one for Episcipalians. The other public buildings are two market-houses, a cour'. house, and the best gaol in the state. Besides these, there is an academy, already mentioned, a free-school, a nail manufactory, and an excellent distillery, if that can be called excellent, which produces a poison both of health and morals.
The city is a free port. The mayor, recorder, and aldermen hold a commercial court, when the matter in controversy is between foreigners and foreigners, or between foreigners and citizens. The illand of Burlington was laid out, and the firit settlements made as early as 1677. In 1682, the island Mittinnicunk, or Free-School island, was given for the use of the island of Burlington ; the yearly profits arising from it (which amount to one hundred and eighty pounds) are appropriated for the education of poor children.
PERTH AMBOY (City) took its name from James Drummond, carl of Perth; and Ambo, the Indian word for point, and stands on a peck of land jocluded between Raritan river and Arthur Kull sound. Its fitua.
and have been freeholders and inhabitants of the counties they represent for one year. The general assembly is composed of three meinbers from each county, chosen as above; each of them must be worth five hundred pounds, in real and personal eitate within the county, and have been frecholders and inhabitants as above. All there, on taking their seats in the legislature, must swear " that he will not asent to any law, rote or proceeding, WHICH SHALL APPEAR TO HIM injurious to the public welfare of the state, or that shall annul or repcal that part of the conftitution which establishes annual elections, nor that part respecting trial by jury, nor that part which fecures liberty of conscience."
The governor fits in, and presides over the legislative council, and has a casting vote in their debates. His privy or executive council, is composed of any three members of the legislative council; and the governot and any seven members of the council are a court of appeals in the last resort, as to points of law in civil cases, and possess a power of pardoning criminals in all cases whatsoever. The council chuse one of their members to be vice president, who, when the governor is absent from the ftate, pofseffes the supreme executive power. The council may originate any bills, excepting preparing and altering any money bill, which is the sole prerogative of the assembly. In every other respect their powers are equal. Every bill is read three times in each house. None of the judges of the supreme court, or other courts, Meriffs, or any person poflefied of any post of profit under the governor, except juftices of the peace, is entitled to a feat in the assembly. The eftate of a suicide is not forfeited for his offence. · Courts of Justice, Laws, Gc. The courts of justice in this state are, firtt, Juftices Courts. À c-mpetent number of persons are appointed in each county by the council and assembly, in joint meeting, who are called justices of the peace, and continue in office five years, who, besides being confervators of the peace, agreeably to the English laws, are authorized to hold courts for the trial of causes under twelve pounds. From this court, persons aggrieved, may appeal to the quarter seilions. Secondly, Courts of quarter fellions of the peace, are held quarterly in every county, by at least three of the justices. This court takes cognizance of breaches of the peace, and is generally regulated by the rules of the English law.
I hirdly, Courts of common pleas, which are held quarterly, by judges appointed for that purpose, in the same manner as the justices of the peace, and who are commonly of their number, and hold their come missions five years. This court may be held by a single judge, and has cognizance of demands to any amount, and is constructed on, and governed by the principles of the English laws.
Fourthly, Supreme courts, which are held four times a year, at Tren. ton, by three judges appointed for that purpose, who hold their offices three years, but one judge only is necessary to the holding this court. This court has cognizance of all actions, both civil and criminal throughout the state, having the united authority of the courts of king's bench, common plens and exchequer in England. The courts of over and tetminer and wifi prius, commonly held once a year in each county, for the irial of czuics arising in the county, and brought to issue in the