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Early in the late war, a powder-mill was erected in Morristown by Col. Ford, who was enabled, by the ample supply of saltpetre furnished by the patriotic inhabitants, to make a considerable quantity of that valuable and necessary article, at a time when it was most needed ; and when the enemy were at the door, it afforded a timely supply.
Although the bulk of the inhabitants in this state are farmers, yet agriculture has not been improved (a few instances excepted) to that de. gree which, from long experience, we might rationally expect, and which the fertility of the soil, in many places, seems to encourage. A great part of the inhabitants are Dutch, who, although they are in general neat and industrious farmers, have very little enterprize, and seldom adopt any new improvements in husbandry, because, through habits, and want of education to expand and liberalize their minds, they think their old modes of tilling the best. Indeed this is the case with the great body of the common people, and proves almost an insurmountable obstacle to agricultural improvements.
Mines and Minerals.] This state embosoms vast quantities of iron and copper ore. The iron ore is of two kinds; one is capable of being manufactured into malleable iron, and is found in mountains and in low barrens; the other, called bog.ore, grows* in rich bottoms; and yields iron of a hard, brittle quality, and is commonly manufactured into hollow ware, and used sometimes inftead of stone in building.
A number of copper mines have been discovered in different parts of the state. One is in Bergen county, which when worked by the Schuylers, (to whom it belonged) was considerably productive; but they have for many years been neglected.
The following account of a copper mine at New-Brunswick, is given by a gentleman of distinction, well informed upon the subject.
“ About the years 1748, 1749, 1750, several lumps of virgin copper from five to thirty pounds weight, (in the whole upwards of 200 pounds) were ploughed up in a field, belonging to Philip French, Esq; within a quarter of a mile of New-Brunswick. This induced Mr. Elias Boudinot, of the city of Philadelphia, to take a lease of Mr. French of this land, for ninety-nine years, in order to search for copper ore, a body of which he concluded must be contained in this hill. He took in several partners, and about the year 1751 opened a pit in the low grounds, about two or 300 yards from the river. He was led to this spot by a friend of his, who, a little before, passing by at three o'clock in the morning, observed a body of fame arise out of the ground, as large as a common sized man, and soon after die away. He drove a stake on the spot. About fifteen feet deep, Mr. Boudinot came on a vein of bluish itone, about two feet thick, between two perpendicular loose bodies of red rock, covered with a sheet of pure virgin copper, a little thicker than gold leaf. This bluish stone was filled with sparks of virgin copper, very much like copper filings, and now and then a large lump of virgin copper from five to thirty
* Some persons perhaps will be surprized at my saying that ore grows, but that it does in fact grow is well known to many curious naturalists who have carefully observed it. U
pounds weight. He followed this vein almost thirty feet, when, the water coming in very fast, the expence became too great for the company's capital. A itamping-mill was erected, when by reducing the bluish stone to a powder, and washing it in large tubs, the stone was carried off, and the fine copper preserved, by which means many tons of the purest copper was sent to England without ever passing through the fire; but labour was too high to render it poslible for the company to proceed. Sheets of copper about the thickness of two pennies, and three feet square, on an average, have been taken from between the rocks, within four feet of the surface, in several parts of the hill. At about fifty or fixty feet deep, they came to a body of fine folid ore, in the midst of this bluish vein, but between rocks of a white flinty spar, which, however, was worked out in a few days. These works lie now wholly neglected, al. though the vein when left was richer than ever it had been. There was also a very rich vein of copper ore discovered at Rocky Hill, in Somerset county, which has also been neglected from the heavy expence attending ing of it.
There have been various attempts made to search the hills beyond Boundbrook, known by the name of Van Horne's Mountain, but for the same reason it is now neglected. This mountain discovers the greatest appearance of copper ore, of any place in the itate. It may be picked up on the surface of many parts of it. A smelting furnace was erected, before the revolution, in the neighbourhood by two Gerinans, who were making very considerable profit on their work, until the British destroyed it in the beginning of the war. The inhabitants made it worth their while, by collecting the ore from the surface, and by partially digging into the hill, to supply the furnace. Besides, a company opened a very large shaft on the side of the hill, from which also a great deal of valuable ore and fome virgin copper were taken. Two lumps of virgin copper were found here in the year 1754, which weighed 1900 poundsă”
Curious Springs.] In the upper part of the county of Morris, is a cold mineral spring, which is frequented by valetudinarians, and its waters have been used with very considerable success. In the township of Hanover, in this county, on a ridge of liills, are a number of wells, which regularly ebb and flow about fix feet twice in every twenty-four hours. These wells are nearly forty miles from the fea, in a straight line. In the county of Cape May, is a spring of fresh water, which boils up from the bottom of a salt water creek, which runs nearly dry at low tide; but at flood tide, is covered with water directly from the ocean to the depth of three or four feet; yet in this situation, by letting down a bottle well corked, through the salt water into the fpring, and immediately drawing the cork with a string prepared for the purpose, it may be drawn up full of fine, untainted freih water. There are springs of this kind in other parts of the state. In the county of Hunterdon, near the top of Muskonetkony mountain, is a noted medicinal spring, to which invalids refort from every quarter. It issues from the fide of the mountain in a very romantic manner, and is conveyed into an artificial referroir for the accommodation of those who with lo bathe in, as well as to drink, the waters. It is a strong chalyheate, and very cold. These waters have been used with very considerable success; but perhaps the exercise neceflary to get to
them, and the purity of the air in this lofty situation, aided hy a lively imagination, have as great efficacy in curing the patient as the waters.
Caves, Mountains, &c.] In the township of Shrewsbury, in Monmouth county, on the side of a branch of Navefiuk river, is a remarkable cave, in which there are three rooms. The cave is about thirty feet long, and fifteen feet broad. Each of the rooms is arched. The center of the arch is about five feet from the bottom of the cave; the sides not more than two and an half. The mouth of the cave is small; the bottom is a loose sand; and the arch is formed in a soft rock, through the pores of which the moisture is slowly exudated, and falls in drops on the fand below.
On Sandy Hook,' about a mile from the light-house, is a monument, which was erected to commemorate a very melancholy event that took place juft at the close of the late war. The following inscription, which is upon a marble plate on one side of the monument, will afford sufficient information of the matter.
“ Here lies the remains of the Honourable Hamilton Douglafs Halli.' burton, son of Sholto Charles Earl of Morton, and heir of the ancient family of Halliburton of Pitcurr in Scotland; who perished on this coast with twelve more young gentlemen, and one common sailor, in the spirited discharge of duty, the 30th or zist of December, 1783: Born October the roth, 1763; a youth who, in contempt of hardship and danger, though poflefied of an ample fortune, served seven years in the British nary with a manly courage. He seemed to be deserving of a better fate. To his dear memory, and that of his unfortunate companions, this monumental ftone is erected by his unhappy mother, Katharine, Countess Dowager of Morton.
JAMES CHAMPION, Lieutenant of Marines.
JOHN M.CHAIR, WILLIAM SCOTT,
WILLIAM SPRAY, DAVID REDDIE,
Character, Manners, and Customs.) Many circumstances concur to render these various in different parts of the state. The inhabitants are a collection of Low Dutch, Germans, English, Scotch, Irish, and New-Englanders, or their descendents. Nacional attachment and mutual convenience have generally induced these several kinds of people to settle together in a body--and in this way their peculiar national manners, customs, and character, are still preserved, especially among the lower class of people, who have little intercourse with any but those of their own nation. Religion, although its tendency is to unite people in those things that are
essential to happiness, occasions wide differences as to manners, cuftonis, and even character. The Presbyterian, the Quaker, the Episcopalian, the Baptist, the German and Low Dutch Calvinist, the Methodist and the Moravian, have each their distinguishing characteristics, either in their worship, their discipline, or their dress. There is still another very perceptible characteristical difference, distinct from either of the others, which arises from the intercourse of the inhabitants with different states. The people in West-Jersey trade to Philadelphia, and of course imitate their fashions, and imbibe their manners. The inhabitants of East-Jersey trade to New-York, and regulate their fashions and manners according to those of New York. So that the difference in regard to fashions and manners between East and Weft-Jersey, is nearly as great as between New-York and Philadelphia.--Add to all these the differences common in all countries, arising from the various occupations of men, such as the Civilian, the Divine, the Lawyer, the Physician, the Mechanic, the clownish, the decent, and the respectable Farmer, all of whom have different pursuits, or pursue the same thing differently, and of course must have a different set of ideas and manners;—when we take into view all these differences, (and all these differences exist in New- Jersey, and many of them in all the other states) it cannot be expected that many general observations will apply. It may, however, in truth be faid, that the people of New Jersey are generally induftrious, frugal and hospitable. There are comparatively but few men of learning in the state, nor can it be said that the people in general have a taste for the sciences. The lower class, in which may be included three-fifths of the inhabitants of the whole ftate, are ignorant, and are criminally neglectful in the education of their children. There are, however, a number of gentlemen of the first rank in abilities and learning in the civil offices of the state, and in the several learned professions.
It is not the business of a geographer to compliment the ladies; nor would we be thought to do it when we say, that there is at least as great a number of industrious, discreet, amiable, genteel and handsome women in New- Jersey, in proportion to the number of inhabitants, as in any of the thirteen states. Whether an adequate degree of solid mental improvement, answering to the personal and other useful qualities we have mentioned, is to be found among the fair of this state, is a more weighty concern. Perhaps it may be laid with justice, that in general, though there is not the same universal taste for knowledge, discernible among the ladies here, as in some other of the states, owing in a great measure to the state of society, and the means of improvement, there are, however, many signal instances of improved talents among them, not surpassed by those of their sisters in any of the other states.
Religion.] There are, in this state, about fifty Presbyterian congregations, subject to the care of three Presbyteries, viz. that of New York, of New Brunswick, and Philadelphia. A part of the charge of NewYork and Philadelphia Presbyteries lies in New-Jersey, and part in their own respective states. To supply these congregations, there are at prefent about twenty-five ministers.
There are upwards of forty congregations of Friends, commonly called Quakers ; who are in general sober, plain, industrious, good citizens. For an account of their religious tenets see Pennsylvania.
There are thirty associated congregations of Baptists, in New-Jersey, whose religious tenets are similar to those already inentioned under Connecticut, (page 220.).
The Epifcopalian interest consists of twenty-five congregations. * There are, in this state, two classes belonging to the Dutch Reformed Synod of New York and New-Jersey. The classis of Hakkensak, to which belongs thirteen congregations; and the classis of New Brunswick, to which belong fifteen congregations. We have already given an ac. count of their church government, discipline, &c. (page 26.;-)
The Moravians have a flourishing settlement at Hope, in Suflex county. This settlement was begun in 1771, and now consists of upwards of 100 fouls.
The Methodist interest is small in this state. The Swedes have a church in Gloucester county : and there are three congregations of the Seventh-Day Baptists. All these religious denominations live together in peace and harmony; and are allowed, by the constitution of the state, to worship Almighty God agreeably to the dictates of their own confciences; and are not compelled to attend or support any worship contrary to their own faith and judgment. All Proteftant inhabitants,' of peaceable behaviour, are eligible to the civil offices of the state.
Colleges, Academies, and Schools.] There are two colleges in New-jersey; one at Princeton, called Nassau Hall, the other at Brunswick, called Queen's College. The college at Princeton was first founded by charter from John Hamilton, Esq; President of the Council, about the year 1738, and enlarged by Governor Belcher in 1747: The charter delegates a power of granting to “ the students of said college, or to any others thought worthy of them, all such degrees as are granted in either of our universities, or any other college in Great-Britain.” It has twenty-three truftees. The governor of the state, and the president of the college are, ex officiis, two of them. It has an annual income of about £.900 currency; of which to 200 arises from funded public securities and lands, and the rest from the fees of the students.
The president of the college is also professor of eloquence, criticism, and chronology. The vice president is also professor of divinity and moral philosophy. There is also a professor of mathematics, and natural philofophy, and two matters of languages. The four claffes in college contain about seventy students. There is a grammar-school, of about thirty scholars, connected with the college, under the fuperintendance of the president, and taught by two masters.
Before the war this college was furnished with a philosophical apparatus, worth 6.500, which (except the elegant orrery constructed by Mr. Rittenhouse was almost entirely destroyed by the British army in the late war, as was also the library, which now consists of between 2 and 3000 volumes.
The college edifice is handsomely built with stone, and is 180 feet in length, 54 in breadth, and 4 fories high; and is divided into forty-two