« הקודםהמשך »
Since the peace of 1783, great numbers of the inhabitants have emigrated to the country west of the Allegany Mountains. The increase of inhabitants in thu Aate muft be small lo long as these emigrations thall
but shrub oaks and white and yellow pines. There are large bodies of falt meadow along the Delaware, which afford a plentiful pasture for cattle in summer, and hay in winter; but the flies and musketoes frequent these meadows in large swarms, in the months of June, July and Auguft, and prove very troublesome both to man and beaft. In Gloucester and Cumberland counties are several large tracts of banked meadow. Their vicinity to Philadelphia renders them highly valuable. Along the sca-caaft the inhabitants sublift principally by feeding cattle on the falt meadows, and by the fish of various kinds, such as rock, drum, fhad, perch, &c. black turtle, crabs and oysters, which the sea, rivers, and creeks afford in great abundance. They raise Indian corn, rye, potatoes, &c. but not for exportation. Their swamps afford lumber, which is easily conveyed to a good market.
In the hilly and mountainous parts of the state, which are not too rocky for cultivation, the soil is of a stronger kind, and covered in its natural state with stately oaks, hickories, chesnuts, &c. &c. and when cultivated produces wheat, rye, Indian corn; buck-wheat, oats, barley, flax, and fruits of all kinds common to the climate. The land in this hilly country is good for grazing, and the farmers feed great numbers of cattle for New-York and Philadelphia markets; and many of them keep large... dairies,
The orchards in many parts of the state equal any in the United States, and their cyder is said, and not without reason, to be the best in the world. It is pretty certain that it cannot be surpassed in goodness. Ic is only to be regretted that too many of the inhabitants make too free a use of it, to the injury not only of their healths, but of their reputations; and that the pernicious practice of distilling it, and thereby rendering is still more prejudicial, is prevailing. It is pity that the blessings of boun. teous heaven should thus, by their abuse, be turned into curses.
The markets of New-York and Philadelphia receive a very considerable proportion of their supplies from the contiguous parts of New-Jersey. And it is worthy of remark that these contiguous parts are exceedingly well calculated, as to the nature and fertility of their foils, to afford these fupplies; and the intervention of a great number of navigable rivers and creeks renders it very convenient to market their produce. These supplies consist of vegetables of many kinds, apples, pears, peaches, plumbs, strawberries, cherries, and other fruits--cyder in large quantities, and of the best quality, butter, cheese, beef, pork, mutton, and the lesses meats.
Trade.] The trade of this state is carried on almost folely with and from those two great commercial cities, New-York on one side, and Phi. ladelphia on the other; though it wants not good ports of its own. Several attempts have been made by the legislature, to secure to the ftatc its own natural advantages, by granting extraordinary privileges to merchants, who would settle at Amboy and Burlington, two very commo. dious ports. But the people having long been accustomed to send their produce to the markets of Philadelphia and New-York, and of course having their correspondencies established, and their mode of dealing fixed, they find it difficult to turn their trade from the old channel.
Besides, in these large cities, where are fo many able merchants, and fo many wants to be fupplied, credits are more easily obtained, and a better and quicker market is found for produce, than could be expected in towns lefs populous and flourishing. These and other causes of the same kind, kare, hitherto, rendered abortive the encouragements held out by the legislature.
New-York and Pennsylvania, however, not contented with the privilege of being the factors and carriers for this state, charge it with the same duries they do their own citizens. This heavy and unreasonable tax upon the people, together with the loss they sustain in dealing with a depreciated paper currency, occasions the balance of trade to be againft the ftate in almost every respect.
The articles exported, besides those already mentioned, are, wheat, four, horses, live cattle, hams, which are celebrated as being the beft in the world, lumber, fax-feed, leather, iron in great quantities, in pigs and bars, and formerly copper ore was reckoned among their moft valuable exports; but the mines have not been worked fince the commencement of the late war.
The imports confitt chiefly of dry and West-India goods, and teas from the East-Indies.
Manufatures and Agriculture.] The manufactures of this state have hitherto been very inconsiderable, not sufficient to supply its own confumption, if we except the articles of iron, nails and leather. A spirit of industry and improvement, particularly in manufactures, has however greatly increased in the two latt years. Most of the families in the country, and many in the populous towns, are clothed in strong, decent homeIpun; and it is a happy circumstance for our country, that this plain AMERICAN dress is every day growing more fashionable, not only in this, but in all the eastern and middle states. · Ii Trenton and Newark, are several very valuable. tan-yards, where leather, in large quantities, and of an excellent quality, is made and ex. ported to the neighbouring markets. Steel was manufactured at Trenton in time of the war, but not considerably since. In Gloucefter county is a glafs-house. Paper-inills, and nail manufactories, are erected and worked to good advantage in many parts of the state. Wheat also is manufacfured into flour to good account, in the western counties, where it is the staple commodity. But the iron manufacture is, of all others, the greareft source of wealth to the state. Iron works are erected in Gloucefter, Burlington, Morris, and other counties. The mountains in the county of Morris, give rise to a number of streams necessary and convenient for these works, and at the fame time furnish a copious supply of wood and ore of a fupcrior quality. In this county alone are no less than feven rich iron mines, from which might be taken ore sufficient to supply the United States; and to work it into iron are two furnaces, two rolling and flitting mills, and about thirty forges, containing from two to four fires each. These works produce annually about 540 tons of bar iron, 800 cons of pigs, besides large quantities of hollow ware, sheet iron, and nail rods. In the whole ftate, it is supposed there is yearly made about 1200 tons of bar-iron, 1200 do. of pigs, 80 do. of nail rods, exclusive of hollow ware, and various other castings, of which vaft quantities are made.