« הקודםהמשך »
Civil Divifions, Population, &c.] New Jersey is divided into 13 CODEties, which are subdivided into 94 townships or precincts, as follows:
These feven counties lie from S. to from N. to S. on the N. on Delaware river. Cape May
and Gloucester extend across to the sea. These four counties lie eastern side of the tate.
In 1784, a cenfus of the inhabitants was made by order of the legislature, when they amounted to 140,435, of which 10,50r were blacks. Of these blacks, 1939 only were llaves; fo that the proportion of laves to the whole of the inhabitants in the state, is as one to seventy-fix The population for every square mile is eighteen,
In 1738, the number of inhabitants in New - Jersey was 47,369; of which 3,981 were Naves. In 1745, there were 61,403 inhabitants in the colony, of which 4606 were Naves. The average annual increase of inhabitants in New Jersey lince the year 1738, has been 2219, exclusive of emigrations.
1959 2,032,587 484,9541 52,488 102,221 1941
Since the pcace of 1783, great numbers of the inhabitants have emigrated to the country west of the Allegany Mountains. The increase of inhabitants in the date muft be small io long as these emigrations shall
continue; and they will probably continue as long as there are unsettled lands within the limits of the United States, on which emigrants can more easily sublift by agriculture, than in their native state.
Face of the Country, Mountains, Soil and Productions.] The counties of Suflex, Morris, and the northern part of Bergen, are mountainous. The South mountain, which is one ridge of the great Allegany range, crosses this state in about latitude 41°. This mountain embofoms such amazing quantities of iron ore, that it may not improperly be called the Iron Mountain. The Kittatinny ridge passes through this ftate north of the South mountain. Several spurs from these mountains, are projected in a southern direction. One palies between Springfield and Chatham. Another runs west of it, by Morristown, Balkinridge and Vealtown. The . interior country is, in general, agreeably variegated with hills and vallies. The southern counties which lie along the sea-coast, are pretty uniformly flat and fandy. The noted Highlands of Navesink and Center Hill, are almost the only hills within the distance of many miles from the seacoast. The Highlands of Navesink are on the sea-coast near SandyHook, in the township of Middletown, and are the first lands that are ditcovered by mariners as they come upon the coast. They rife about 600 feet above the surface of the water.
As much as five-eighths of most of the southern counties, or one-fourth of the whole ftate, is a sandy barren, unfit for cultivation. The land on the fea-coatt in this, like that in the more southern states, has every appearance of made grund. The foil is generally a light fand; and by digging, on an average, about fifty feet below the surface, (which can be done, even at the dittance of twenty or thirty miles from the sea, without any impediment from rocks or stones) you come to falt marh. The gentleman who gave this information adds, I have seen an oyster-fhell that would hold a pint, which was dug out
of the marsh, at fifty feet deep in digging a well. • About seven years since, continues my informer, • at Long Branch, in the county of Monmouth, in the banks of the Até lantic, which were greatly torn by a great rise of the sea in a violent eafterly storm, was discovered the skeleton of some huge carnivorous animal. The country people who first saw it had so little curiosity, as to suffer it to be wholly destroyed, except a jaw tooth which I faw. This was about two and an half inches wide, five inches long, and as many deep. The person who helped to take it out of the bank, allured me there was one tib seven feet four inches, and another four feet long.'—To account for these curious phenomena is not my business. This is left for the ingenious naturalist, who has abilities, and leisure to compare facts and appearances of this kind, and who probably may thence draw conclusions which may throw much light on the ancient history of this country.
This flate has all the varieties of soil from the worst to the beft kind. It has a greater proportion of barrens than any of the states, if we except North-Carolina; and even than this, if we include the premature State of Franklin. The good land in the southern counties lies principally on the banks of the rivers and creeks. The soil, on these banks, is generally a stiff clay; and while in a state of nature, produces various species of oak, hickory, poplar, chesnut, ash, gum, &c. * The barrens produce little else,
but shrub oaks and white and yellow pines. There are large bodies of falt meadow along the Delaware, which afford a plentiful pasture for cattle in summer, and hay in winter; but the flies and mušketoes frequent these meadows in large swarms, in the months of June, July and Auguft, and prove very troublesome both to man and beat. In Gloucester and Cumberland counties are several large tracts of banked meadow. Their vicinity to Philadelphia renders them highly valuable. Along the sca-coast the inhabitants sublift principally by feeding cattle on the falt meadows, and by the fish of various kinds, such as rock, drum, shad, perch, &c. black turtle, crabs and oysters, which the fea, rivers, and creeks afford in great abundance. They raise Indian corn, rye, potatoes, &c. but not for exportation. Their swamps afford lumber, which is easily conveyed to a good market.
In the hilly and mountainous parts of the state, which are not too rocky for cultivation, the soil is of a stronger kind, and covered in its natural state with stately oaks, hickories, chesnuts, &c. &c. and when cultivated produces wheat, rye, Indian corn, buck-wheat, oats, barley, fax, and fruits of all kinds common to the climate. The land in this hilly country is good for grazing, and the farmers feed great numbers of cattle for New-York and Philadelphia markets; and many of them keep largedairies,
The orchards in many parts of the state equal any in the United States, and their cyder is faid, and not without reason, to be the best in the world. It is pretty certain that it cannot be surpassed in goodness. Ic is only to be regretted that too many of the inhabitants make too free a use of it, to the injury not only of their healths, but of their reputations; and that the pernicious practice of distilling it, and thereby rendering it still more prejudicial, is prevailing. It is pity that the blessings of bounteous heaven should thus, by their abuse, be turned into curses.
The maskets of New-York and Philadelphia receive a very considerable proportion of their supplies from the contiguous parts of New Jersey. And it is worthy of remark that these contiguous parts are exceedingly well calculated, as to the nature and fertility of their foils, to afford these fupplies; and the intervention of a great number of navigable rivers and creeks renders it very convenient to market their produce. These supplies consist of vegetables of many kinds, apples, pears, peaches, plumbs, Atrawberries, cherries, and other fruits--cyder in large quantities, and of the best quality, butter, cheese, beef, pork, mutton, and the lesses
Trade.] The trade of this state is carried on almost solely with and from those two great commercial cities, New-York on one side, and Philadelphia on the other; though it wants not good ports
of its own.
Several attempts have been made by the legislature, to secure to the state its own natural advantages, by granting extraordinary privileges to merchants, who would settle at Amboy and Burlington, two very commo. dious ports. But the people having long been accustomed to send their produce to the markets of Philadelphia and New-York, and of course having their correspondencies established, and their mode of dealing fixed, they find it dificult to turn their trade from the old channel.
Besides, in these large cities, where are fo many able merchants, and fo many wants to be fupplied, credits are more easily obtained, and a better aud quicker market is found for produce, than could be expected in towns Jess populous and flourishing. These and other causes of the same kind, kave, hitherto, rendered abortive the encouragements held out by the - legislature.
New-York and Pennsylvania, however, not contented with the privilege of being the factors and carriers for this itate, charge it with the same duties they do their own citizens. This heavy and unreasonable tax upon the people, together with the loss they sustain in dealing with a depreciated paper currency, occasions the balance of trade to be against the ftate in almost every respect.
The articles exported, besides those already mentioned, are, wheat, four, horses, live catrle, hams, which are celebrated as being the beft in the world, lumber, flax-feed, leather, iron in great quantities, in pigs and bars, and formerly copper ore was reckoned among their moft valuable exports; but the mines have not been worked fince the commencement of the late war.
The imports confitt chiefly of dry and West-India goods, and teas from the East-Indies.
Manufactures and Agriculture.] The manufactures of this state have hitherto been very inconsiderable, not fufficient to supply its own confumption, if we except the articles of iron, nails and leather. A spirit of industry and improvement, particularly in manufactures, has however greatly increased in the two latt years. Most of the families in the couniry, and many in the populous towns, are clothed in strong, decent home
pun; and it is a happy circumstance for our country, that this plain AMERICAN dress is every day growing more fashionable, not only in this, but in all the eastern and middle ftates.
In Trenton and Newark, are several very valuable tan-yards, where leather, in large quantities, and of an excellent quality, is made and ex. ported to the neighbouring markets. Steel was manufactured at Trenton in time of the war, but not considerably fince. In Gloucefter county is a glafs-house. Paper-mills, and nail manufactories, are erected and worked to good advantage in many paris of the state. Wheat also is manufaccured into flour to good account, in the western counties, where it is the staple commodity. But the iron manufacture is, of all others, the greatest source of wealth to the state. Iron works are erected in Gloucefter, Burlington, Morris, and other counties. The mountains in the county of Morris, give rise to a number of streams necessary and convenient for these works, and at the fame time furnish a copious supply of wood and ore of a fuperior quality: In this county alone are no less than feven rich iron mines, from which might be taken ore suficient to supply the United States; and to work it into iron are two furnaces, two rolling and flitting mills, and about thirty forges, containing from two to four fires each. These works produce annually about 540 tons of bar iron, 800 cons of pigs, besides large quantities of hollow ware, sheet iron, and nail rods. In the whole ftate, it is supposed there is yearly made about 1200 tons of bar-iron, 1200 do. of pigs, 80 do. of nail rods, exclusive of hollow ware, and various other castings, of which vaft quantities are made.