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the enemy being reported to be one thousand four hundred strong. A party of horse was immediately dispatched to Skenectady, and a few Mohawks then in town, fearful of being intercepted, were with difficulty sent to apprise their own castles,

The Mohawks were unacquainted with this bloody scene until two days after it happened, our meitengers being scarcely able to travel through the great depth of the snow. The enemy, in the mean time, pillaged the town of Skenectady until noon the next day; and then went off with their plunder, and about forty of their best horses. The rest, with all the cattle they could find, lay flaughtered in the streets.

Upon the arrival of a governor at New.York, commissioned by the king, Leifler imprudently refused to surrender the garrison, for which he and his son were condemnned to death, as guilty of high treason.

The whole province of New-York was originally settled by non-epif, copalians, chiefly by presbyterians, except a few epifcopal families in the city of New-York. In 1693, Col. Fletcher, then governor of the province, projected che scheme of a general tax for building churches, and fupporting episcopal ministers, and artfully effected his design in part. This overture laid the foundation for a dispute between the presbyterians and epifcopalians, which, until the revolution, was maintained on both fides with great warmth and animosity. Several of the governors, particularly the infamous * Lord Cornbury, thewed great partiality to the episcopalians, and persecuted the presbyterians.

To prevent the Roman Catholic missionaries from Canada from in. fluencing the Indian allies of the province to renounce their allegiance to the British crown, under the pretext of religion, the legislature of the province, in July 1700, pafled a law, prohibiting Jesuits and Popish Prieits

* The follozving extrait from the History of New-York, will fully justify this epithet. Speaking of Lord Cornbury, the historian says, ' tlis lordship's Jense of honour and justice was as weak and indelicate, as his bigotry

' was rampart and uncontroulable : and hence we find him grilty of an act complicated of a number of vices, which no man could have perpetrated without violence in the very slightest remains of generosity and justice. When his excellency retired to Jamaica, on account of the Great Sickness in 1702, one Hubbard, the presbyterian minister, lived in the beft house in the town. His lordship begged the loan of it for the use of his own family, and the clergyman put himself to no small inconveniencies to favour the governor's requeft; but in return for the generous benefa&tion, his lord hip perfidiously delivered the parfonage-house into ihe hands of the episcopal party, and encouraged one Cardwel, the sheriff, a mean fellow, who afterwards put an end to his own life, to seize upon the glebe, which he furveyed into lots, and farmed for the benefit of the episcopal church. These tyrannical measures juftly inflamed the indignation of the injured

sufferers, and that again the more embittered his lordfhip against them. They resented, and he persecuted: nor did he confine his pious rage to the people of Jamaica. He detested all who were of the same denomination; nay, averse to every feci excepe his own, be infifted that neither the minifters nor school masters of the Dutch, the most numerous perfuafion in the province, had a right ra preach or inftruit without his gubernatorial licence; and fome of them tunely submitted to his unauthoritative rule,' T 4

frona

from exercising their office in the province, on pain of perpetual imprisonment. If any one should escape from prison, and be afterwards taken, he was to be put to death. This law, however vindicable in a political view, is certainly to be condemned on the principle of religion, as it favoured as highly of perfecution as any law ever passed in New-England. The truth is, the legislators in both instances intended to prevent political evils, but their laws for this end were highly exceptionable. The offenders against the public peace ought to have been treated in a civil, not in a religious capacity.' Civil and ecclefiaftical power are intirely distinct, and never ought to be blended. The religious persecue, tions, which have proved the destruction of thousands of pious people, may, in a great measure, be ascribed to the undue interference of civil with ecclefiaitical authority.

This law against the Roman Catholics remained unrepealed (though it was never enforced) until the revolution.

In 1709, a vigorous expedition was meditated against Canada, in making preparation for which, this province expended above 6.20,000; but the expected assistance from Britain failing, it was never prosecuted. soon after, Col. Schuyler, who had been very influential with the In, dians, went to England with five fachems, who were introduced into the presence of Queen Anne. The object of this visit was to stimulate the ministry to the reduction of Canada.

In 1711, a considerable fleet was sent over for that purpose, but eight transports being calt away on the coast, the rest of the feet and troops returned without making any attempt to reduce Canada.

In 1710, Governor Hunter brought over with him about 3000 Palatines, who, the year before, had fled to England from the rage of persecution in Germany. Many of these people settled in the city of New York; others settled on a tract of feveral thousand acres in the manor of Livingston; and some went to Pennsylvania, and were instrumental in inducing thousands of their countrymen to emigrate to that province,

The prohibition of the fale of Indian goods to the French, in 1720, excited the clanour of the merchants at New-York, whose intereft was aitected by it. The measure was undoubtedly a politic one ; and the reafons for it were these: The French by this trade were supplied with articles which were wanted by the Indians. This prevented the Indians from coming to Albany, and drew them to Montreal; and they being employed by the French, as carriers, became attached to them from intereit. About the same time, a trading-house was erected by the English at Oswego, on Lake Ontario; and another by the French at Niagara.

In 1729, the act prohibiting the trade between Albany and Montreal was imprudently repealed by the king. This naturally tended to undermine the trade at Oswego, and to advance the French commerce of Niagara; and at the same time to alienate the affections of the Indians from Britain. Not long after this, the French were suffered to erect a fortress at Lake Champlain. To prevent the ill consequences of this, a scheme was projected to settle the lands ncar Lake George with loyal protestant Highlanders from Scotland. A tract of thirty thousand acres was accordingly promised to Captain Campbell, who, at his own expence, transported

eighty-three Proteftant families to New-York. But through the fordid views of some persons in power, who aimed at a share in the intended grant, the settlement was never made.

We have already mentioned, in the history of the United States, fome of the most important events that have taken place in this state since the revolution. To be more particular is inconlistent with my design. I Thall conclude this history, with a list of the governors of New-York, after having mentioned that,

In 1987, the legislature of this state ceded to the commonwealth of Massachusetts, all the lands, within their jurisdiction, weit of a meridian that shall be drawn from a point in the north boundary line of Pennsylvania, eighty-two miles welt from the Delaware ; (excepting one mila along the east side of Niagara river) and also ten townships between the Chenengo and Owegy rivers, referving the jurisdiction to the ftate of New-York. This cession was made to fatisfy a claim of Massachusetts, founded upon their original charter.

A Lift of Governors from the year 1664 to the present time.
Names of Governors. Began to govern. Names of Governors. Began to gourth.
Nicolls

1664
Burnet

1720 Lovelace

1668
Montgomerie

1728
Andross
1674 Vandam

1731 Brockhụst

1682
Colby

1732
Dongan
1683 Clarke

1735 Slaughter 1690 Clinton

1743 Ingoldsby

1691
Olborn

1753 Fletcher

1692
De Lancey

1753 Bellemont

1698

Sir Charles Hardy
Nanfan

1699
De Lancey

1757 Bellemont

1700

Colden (Prefident) 1760
Depeylter

1700
Monckton

1761 Smith

1700
Colden

1761 Nanfan

Monckton

1762 Cornbury

1702
Colden

1763 Lovelace

1708 Sir Henry Moore 1765 Schuyler

1709
Colden

1769 Ingoldihy

1709
Dunmore

7770 Beekman

1710
'Tryon

1771 Hunter

1710

Clinton

1755

7701

1778

NEW

Boundaries.] B south, by the fea; weft, by Delaware bay and river,

NEW Í ERS E Y.

SITUATION and EXTENT.
Miles.
Length 160

39 and 41° 24' North Latitude.

Between Breadth

The body of the state lies between the me52

ridian of Philadelphia, and 1° Eaft Longitude.

OUNDED eaft, by Hudson's river and the fea; which divide it from the states of Delaware and Pennsylvania; north, by a line drawn from the mouth of Mahakkamak river, in latitude 41° 24 to a point in Hudson's river in latitude 41°. Containing about 8320 square miles, equal to 5,324,800 acres.

Bays, Ponds, Rivers, &c.] New-Jersey is washed on the east and south-east by Hudson's river and the ocean; and on the west by the river Delaware.

The most remarkable bays are, Arthur Kull, or Newark bay, formed by the union of Posaik and Hakkensak rivers. This bay opens to the right and left, and embraces Staten-Ifand. There is a long bay, formed by a beach, four or five miles from the shore, extending along the coast north-east and south-west, from Manasquand river, in Monmouth county, almost to Cape May. Through this beach are a number of inlets, by which the bay communicates with the ocean.

On the top of a mountain, in Morris county, is a lake or pond, three miles in length, and from a mile to a mile and an half in breadth, from which proceeds a continual stream. It is in some places deep.. The water is of a sea-green colour; but when taken up in a tumbler, is, like the water of the ocean, clear and of a crystaline colour.

The rivers in this state, though not large, are numerous. A traveller, in passing the common road from New-York to Philadelphia, crosses three conliderable rivers, viz. the Hakkenfak and Posaik between Bergen and Newark, and the Raritan by Brunswick. The Hakkensak rises in Bergen county, runs a southwardly course, and empties into Newark bay. At the ferry, near its mouth, it is 460 yards wide, and is navigable fifteen miles.

Posaik is a very crooked river. It rises in a large swamp in Morris county:. Its general course is from W. N. W. to E. S. E. until it mingles with the Hakkensak at the head of Newark bay. It is navigable about ten miles, and is 2 30 yards wide at the ferry. The cataract in this river is one of the greatest natural curiosities in the state. The river is about forty yards wide, and moves in a slow, gentle current, until coming within a short distance of a deep cleft in a rock, which crosses the channel, it descends and falls above seventy feet perpendicularly, in one entire sheet. One end of the cleft, which was evidently made by some violent convulsion in nature, is closed; at the other, the water rushes out with

incredible

incredible swiftness, forming an acute angle with its former direction, and is received into a large bason, whence it takes a winding course through the rocks, and spreads into a broad, smooth stream. The cleft is from four to twelve feet broad. The falling of the water occasions a cloud of vapour to arise, which, by floating amidst the sun beams, prefents to the view rainbows, that add beauty to the tremendous scene. The western bank of this river, between Newark and the falls, affords one of the pleasantest roads for a party of pleasure in New-Jersey. The bank being high, gives the traveller an elevated and extensive view of the opposite hore, which is low and fertile, forming a landscape picturesque and beautiful. Many handsome country-seats adorn the sides of this river; and there are elegant situations for more. Gentlemen of fortune might here display their taste to advantage. The fish of various kinds with which this river abounds, while they would furnish the table with an agreeable repaft, would afford the sportsman an innocent and manly amulement.

Raritan river is formed by two considerable streams, called the north and south branches; one of which has its source in Morris, the other in Hunterdon county: It passes by Brunswick and Amboy, and mingles with the waters of the Arthur Kull found, and helps to form the fine harbour of Amboy. It is a mile wide at its mouth, 250 yards at Brunfwick, and is navigable about fixteen miles. At Raritan Hills, through which this river passes, is a small cascade, where the water falls fifteen or twenty feet, very romantically between two rocks. Oppofite the lower part of the town of Brunswick, is a remarkable declivity in the bed of the river, not perceptible however in its current. Below this declivity, a twenty gun fhip may ride fecurely at any time of tide, while no farther up than opposite the main street of the town, the river is fordable with horses and carriages at low water. The tide, however, rises fo high, that large Thallops pass a mile above the ford ; so that it is no uncommon thing to see vessels of considerable burden riding at anchor, and a number of large river craft lying above, fome dry and others on their beam ends for want of water, within gunshot of each other.

Besides these are Cesarea river, or Cohansey creek, which rises in Sa. lem county, and is about thirty miles in length, and navigable for velsels of an hundred tons to Bridgetown, twenty miles from its mouth,

Mullicas river divides the counties of Gloucester and Burlington, and is navigable twenty miles for vessels of fixty tons.

Maurice river rises in Gloucester county, runs southwardly about forty miles, and is navigable-for vessels of an hundred tohs, fifteen miles, and for shallops ten miles farther.

Alloway creek, in the county of Salem, is navigable fixteen miles for shallops, with several obstructions of drawbridges. Ancocus creek, in Burlington county, is also navigable fixteen miles. These, with many other smaller streams, empty into the Delaware, and carry down the produce which their fertile banks and the neighbouring country afford.

That part of the state which borders on the sea, is indented with a great number of small rivers and creeks, such as Great Egg harbour, and Little Egy harbour rivers, Navefink, Shark, Matisicung, and Forked rivers, which, as the country is flat, are navigable for small craft, almost to their sources.

Civil

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