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The Onondagas live near the Salt or Onondaga Lake, about twentyfive miles from the Oneida Lake. In the spring of 1779, a regiment of men were fent from Albany by General J. Clinton, against the Onondagas. This regiment surprized their town took thirty-three prifonerskilled twelve or fourteen, and returned without the loss of a man. A party of the Indians were at this time ravaging the American frontiers.
There are very few of the Delaware tribe in this state.
The Five confederated Nations were settled along the banks of the Sufquehannah, and in the adjacent country, until the year 1779, when General Sullivan, with an army of 4000 men, drove them from theis country to Niagara, where being obliged to live on salted provisions, to which they were unaccustomed, great numbers of them died. Two hundred of them, it is said, were buried in one grave, where they had encamped. General Sullivan hurnt several of their towns, destroyed their provisions, and defeated them in an engagement at Newton. Since this isruption into their country, their former habitations have been mostly deserted, and many of thein have gone into Canada.
On the 13th of November, 1787, John Livingston, Esq; and four others, obtained of the Six Nations of Indians a lease for 999 years, on a yearly rent reserved of 2000 dollars, of all the country included in the following limits, viz. beginning at a place commonly known by the name of Canada Creek, about seven miles west of Fort Stanwix, now Fort Schuyler, thence north-eastwardly to the line of the province of Quebec; thence along the said line to the Pennsylvania line; thence eaft on the said line, or Pennsvlania line, to the line of Property, so called by the fate of New-York; thence along the said line of Property, to Canada Creek aforesaid. And on the 8th of January, 1988, the same persons obtained a lease of the Oneida Indians, for 999 years, on a rent reserved for the first year of 1200 dollars, and increasing it at the rate of 100 dollars a yeas, until it amount to 1500 dollars, of all the tract of land commonly called ahe Oneida country, except a refervation of several tracts specified in the lease. But these leases having been obtained without the consent of the legislature of the Itate, the senate and assembly, in their feflion, March 1988, resolved, " That the said leases are purchases of lands; and therefore, that by the constitution of this state the said leases are not binding on the said Indians, and are not valid.'—This very important and incerefting dispute remains to be settled.
We shall conclude this account of the Indians, with an Indian speech to Sir William Johnfon, superintendant of Indian affairs, at a treaty held with the Six Nations and others, at Fort Stanwix, in October 1768, for the settlement of a boundary line between the Colonies and the Indians.
. We remember that on our first meeting you, when you came with your ships, we kindly received you-entertained you-entered into an alliance with you, though we were then great and numerous, and your people inconsiderable and weak. And we know that we entered into 2 covenant-chain of bark with you, and faftened your ship therewith. But being apprehensive the bark would break, and your ship be loft, we made one of iron, and held it fast that it should not lip from us but seeing the former chain was liable to ruft, we made a filver one to guard against it.'
There are very few rivers upon the ifland. The largest is Peakonok, which rises about ten miles west of a place called River head, where the couri-house stands, and runs eafterly into a large bay, dividing Southhold from Southampton. In this bay are Robin and Shelter Ilands.
The south side of the island is indented with numerous streams of vari. ous sizes, which fall into a large bay, two or three miles over, formed by a beach, about eighty rods wide, which appears like a border to the island, extending from the west end of it to Southampton. Through this beach, in various places, are inlets of such depin as io admin of vexels of fixty or seventy tons.
This bay was formerly fresh water. As evidences of this, the stumps of trees are to be seen in great numbers on the falt marsh, near the up. Land, Oyitess, clams, and fish of various kinds, are caught with ease, and in great plenty in this bay, with seines, during the winter season. It is not uncommon to see forty or fifty vessels here loading with oyfters as the same time. And what is almoft incredible, though I was told of it by two gentlemen of truth, and who were well informed as to the matter, thirty waggon loads of bass have been caught in this bay at one draught.
Rockonkama pond, lies about the centre of the idland, between Smithtowrr and Idip, and is about a mile in circumference. This pond has been found by observation, to rise gradually for feveral years, until it had arrived to a eertain height, and then to fall more rapidly to its lowest bed; and thus it is continually ebbing and flowing. The cause of this eurious phenomenon has ver been investigated. Two miles to the southward of this pond is a confidesable stream, calked Connecticut river, which empties into the bay.
There are two whale ftheries ; one from Sagg harbour, which produces about 1000 barrels of oil annually. The other is much finaller, and is carried on by the inhabitants in the winter season, from the south side of the ifand. They commonly catch from three to feven whales in a season, which produce from twenty-five to forty barrels of oil. This fishery was formerly a source of considerable wealth to the inhabitants, but through a scarcity of whales, it has greatly declined of late years.
There is a considerable trade carried on from Sagg-harbour, whence is exported to the Welt-Indies and other places, whale oil, pitch-pine boards, horses, catile, flax-feed, beef, &c. The produce of the middle and western parts of the iland is carried to New York.
The island contains 30,863 inhabitants.
Staten Island lies nine miles fouth-weft of the city of New-York, and forms Richmond county. It is about eighteen miles in length, and, at a medium, fix or seven in breadth, and contains 3,152 inhabitants. On the fouth side is a considerable tract of level good land; but the iland in general is rough, and the hills high. Richmond is the only town of any note on the island, and that is a poor, inconsiderable place. The inhabitants are principally Dutch and French,
Hißory.) Hudson's River was first discovered in 1608, by Henry Hudfon, an Englishman, who sold his claim to the Dutch.
In 1614, the States General granted a patent to several merchants, for an exclusive trade on the river liudson. The same year this company builo a fort on the west side of the river, near Albany, and named it Fort
In 1615, a fort was built on the southwest point of Manhattan's, now York ifland; but the first settlers planted themselves about two miles from this fort, and built a church there, the ruins of which, it is said, are Atill visible, near the two milc stone on the public road. In this situation, finding themselves insecure during the wars between the Englith and Dutch, they left this place, and planted their habitations under the guns of the fort, which laid the foundation of the prefent city.
In 1614, Captain Argall, under Sir Thomas Dale, governor of Virginia, visited the Dutch on Hudson's river, who being unable to refift him, prudently submitted for the present, to the king of England, and under him to the governor of Virginia. Determined upon the settlement of a colony, the States-general, in 1621, granted the country to the West India company; and in the year 1629, Wouter Van Twiller arrived at Fort Amiterdam, now New York, and took upon himself the government.
In August 27, 1664, governor Stuyvesant surrendered the colony to colonel Nicolls, who had arrived in the bay a few days before, with three or four ships, and about 300 soldiers, having a commission from king Charles the IId. to reduce the place, which then was called New Amsterdam, but was changed to New York, as was Fort Orange to Albany, ir honour of his Royal Highness James Duke of York and Albany. Very few of the inhabitants thought proper to remove out of the country; and their numerous descendants are itill in many parts of this state, and New-jersey.
In 1667, at the peace of Breda, New York was confirmed to the English, who in exchange ceded Surinam to the Dutch.
The English kept peaceable possession of the country until the year 1673, when the Dutch, with whom they were then at war, sent a small fquadron, which arrived at Staten Island, on the 30th of July. John Manning, a captain of an independent company, who had at that time the command of the fort, fent a messenger down to the commodore, and treacherously made his terms with him: on the same day the ships came up, moored ušder the fort, landed their men, and entered the garrison, without giving or receiving a shot. All the magistrates and constahles from Eatt Jersey, Long Illand, Æsopus, and Albany, were summoned to New York; and the major part of them swore allegiance to the States General and the Prince of Orange. The conquerors, however, did not long enjoy the fruits of their success, for on the oth of February the year following, a treaty of peace between England and Holland was signed at Westminster; by the fixth article of which, this province was restored to the English, in whose hands it remained until the late revolution.
While New York remained in poffeffion of the Dutch it was called New Netherlands, and governed by a Scout, Burgomasters and Schepens. From its surrender to the English in 1664, to 1683, the province was ruled by governors, appointed and commissioned by the Duke of York, and
their council, whose rules and orders had the force of laws. From the · Laft named period, the people were admitted to a share of the legislative -- authority.
The confederated Cantons of Indians, before the incorporation of the Tuscaroras, a people driven by the Carolinians from the frontiers of Vir. gigia, consisted of five nasions, viz. the Mohawks, Oneidas, Senecas,