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family, at this time, in all the vast extent of coast from Florida to Greenland.
1603.] Martin Pring and William Brown, were this year sent by Sie Walter Raleigh, with two small vessels, to make discoveries in North Virginia. They came upon the coast which was broken with a multitude of illands, in latitude 43° 30' north. They coasted fouthward to Cape Cod Bay; thence round the Cape into a commodious harbour in latitude 41° 25, where they went ashore and tarried seven weeks, during which time they loaded one of their vessels with fassafras, and returned to England.
Bartholomew Gilbert, in a voyage to South Virginia, in search of the third colony which had been left there by Governor White in 1587, having touched at several of the West- India Inands, landed near Chesapeek Bay, where, in a skirmish with the Indians, he and four of his men were unfortunately Nain. The rest, without any further search for the colony, returned to England.
France, being at this time in a state of tranquility in consequence of the edict of Nantz in favour of the Protestanis, passed by Henry IV, (April 1598) and of the peace vith Philip king of Spain and Portugal, was induced to pursue her discoveries in America. Accordingly the king figned a patent in favor of De Mons, (160;) of all the country
from the 40th to the 46th degrees of north latitude under the name 1604 of Acadia. The next year De Mons ranged the coait from St.
Lawrence to Cape Sable, and fo round to Cape Cod. 1605.) In May 1605, George's Illand and Pentecoft Harbour were discovered by Capt. George Weymouth. In May he entered a large river in latitude 43° 20', (variation 11° 15' weft,) which Mr. Prince, in his Chronology, supposes must have been Sagadahok ; but from the latitude, it was more probably the Pifcataqua. Capt. Weymouth carried with him to England five of the natives.
1606.] In the Spring of this year, James I. by patent, divided Virginia into two colonies. The southern included all lands between the 34th and 41st degrees of north latitude. This was styled the first colony, under the name of South Virginia, and was granted to the London Company. The northern, called the second colony, and known by the general name of North Virginia, included all lands between the 38th and 45th degrees north latitude, and was granted to the Plymouth Company. Each of these colonies had a council of thirteen men to govern them. To prevent disputes about territory, the colonies were prohibited to plant within an hundred miles of each other. There appears to be an inconsistency in these grants, as the lands lying between the 38th and 41st degrees, are covered by both patents.
Both the London and Plymouth companies enterprized fettlements within the limits of their respective grants. With what success will now be mentioned.
Mr. Piercy, brother of the Earl of Northumberland, in the service of the London Company, went over with a colony to Virginia, and discovered Powhatan, now James River. In the mean time the Plymouth Company sent Capt. Henry Challons in a vessel of fifty-five tons to plant a colony in North Virginia ; but in his voyage he was taken by a Spanish fiect and carried to Spain.
1607.) The London company this spring, fent Capt. Christopher New, April 26.) port with three vessels to South Virginia. On the 26th of April he entered Chesapeek Bay, and landed, and soon after gave to the most
southern point, the name of Cape Henry, which it still retains, May 13,] Having elected Mr. Edward Wingfield president for the year,
they next day landed all their men, and began a settlement on
James river, at a place which they called James-Town. This is June 22.] the first town that was settled by the English in North Ame
rica. The June following Capt. Newport failed for England, leaving with the president one hundred and four persons.
Auguft 22.] In August died Capt. Bartholomew Gosnold, the first projector of this settlement, and one of the council. The following winter James-Town was burnt,
During this time the Plymouth company fitted out two ships under the command of Admiral Rawley Gilbert. They failed for North Virginia on the zift of May, with one hundred planters, and Capt. George Popham for their president. They arrived in August, and settled about nine or ten leagues to the southward of the mouth of Sagadahok river. A great part of the colony, however, disheartened by the severity of the winter, returned to England in December, leaving their president, Capt. Popham, with only forty-five men.
It was in the fall of this year that the famous Mr. Robinson, with part of his congregation, who afterwards settled at Plymouth in New-England, removed from the North of England to Holland, to avoid the cruelties of persecution, and for the sake of enjoying “ purity of worship and liberty of conscience."
This year a small company of merchants at Dieppe and St. Malo's, founded Quebec, or rather the colony which they fent, built a few huts there, which did not take the form of a town until the reign of Lewis XIV.
1608.] The Sagadahok colony suffered incredible hardships after the departure of their
friends in December. In the depth of winter, which was extremely cold, their store-house caught fire and was consumed, with most of their provisions and lodgings. Their misfortunes were increased, foon after, by the death of their president. Rawley Gilbert was appointed to succeed him.
Lord Chief Justice Popham made every exertion to keep this colony alive by repeatedly sending them fupplies. But the circumstance of his death, which happened this year, together with that of president Gilbert's being called to England to settle his affairs, broke up the colony, and they all returned with him to England.
The unfavourable reports which these first unfortunate adventurers propagated respecting the country, prevented any further attempts to settle North Virginia for several years after.
1609.) The London company, last year, sent Capt. Nelson, with two fhips and one hundred and twenty persons, to James-Town; and this year Capt. John Smith, afterwards president, arrived on the coast of South Virginia, and by failing up a number of the rivers, discovered the interior country. In September, Capt. Newport arrived with seventy perfons, which increased the colony to two hundred souls,
Mr. Robinson and his congregation, who had settled at Amsterdam, removed this year to Leyden, where they remained more than eleven years, till a part of them came over to New England.
The council for South Virginia having resigned their old commision, requested and obtained a new one ; in consequence of which they appointed Sir Thomas West, Lord De la War, general of the colony ; Sir Thomas Gates, his lieutenant ; Sir Geerge Somers, Admiral ; Sir Thomas Dale, high marshal; Sir Ferdinand Wainman, general of the horse, and Capt. Newport, vice-admiral.
June 8.] In June, Sir T. Gates, admiral Newport, and Sir George Somers, with seven thips and a ketch and pinnace, having five hundred souls
on board, men, women, and children, failed from Falmouth for July 24.] South Virginia. In crolling the Bahama Gulf, on the 24th
July, the fleet was overtaken by a violent storm, and separated, Four days af ter, Sir George Somers ran his vessel ashore on one of the Bermudas Islands, which, from this circumstance, have been called the Șomer Illands. The people on board, one hundred and fifty in number, all got safe on shore, and there remained until the following May. The remainder of the fleet arrived at Virginia in August. The colony was now increased to five hundred men. Capt. Smith, then president, a little before the arrival of the fieet, had been very badly burnt by means of some powder which had accidentally caught fire. This unfortunate circumstance, together with the opposition he met with from those who had lately arrived, induced him to leave the colony and return to England, which he accordingly did the last of September. Francis Weft, his fuccessor in office, foon followed him, and George Piercy was elected president.
1610.] The year following, the South Virginia or London company, sealed a patent to Lord De la War, constituting him Governor and Captain-General of South-Virginia. He soon after embarked for America with Capt. Argal and one hundred and fifty men, in three ships.
The unfortunate people, who, the year before, had been shipwrecked on the Bermudas Isands, had employed themselves during the winter and spring, under the direction of Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, and admiral Newport, in building a floop to transport themselves to the continent. They embarked for Virginia on the roth of May, with about one hundred and fifty persons on board, leaving two of their men behind, who chose to stay, and landed at James-Town on the 23d of the fame month. Finding the colony, which at the time of Capt. Smith's departure, confisted of five hundred fouls, now reduced to fixty, and those few in a diftressed and wretched situation, they with one voice resolved to return to England; and for this purpose, on the 7th of June, the whole colony repaired on board their vessels, broke up the settlement, and failed down the river on their way to their native country.
Fortunately, Lord De la War, who had embarked for James-Town the March before, met them the day after they failed, and persuaded them to return with him to James-Town, where they arrived and landed the I oth of June. The government of the colony of right devolved upon Lord De la War. From this time we may date the effectual settlement of Virginia. Its history, from this period, will be given in its proper place,
As early as the year 1608, or 1609, Henry Hudson, an Englishman, under a commifiion from the king his malier, discovered Long Ifand, New York, and the river which fill bears his name, and afterwards sold the country, or rather his right, to the Dutch. Their writers, however, contend that Hudson was sent out by the Eait-India company in 1609, to discover a northwest passage to China ; and that having first discovered Delaware Bay, he came and penetrated Hudson's river as far as latitude 43°. It is said however that there was a sale, and that the English objected to it, though for some time they neglected to oppose the Dutch Settlement of the country.
1610.) In 1610, Hudson failed again to this country, then called by the Dutch New Netherlands, and four years after, the States General grant
ed a patent to fundry merchants for an exclusive trade on the 1614 Nortli river, who the same year, (1614) built a fort on the west side
near Albany. From this time we may date the settlement of NewYork, the history of which will be annexed to a description of the State,
Conception Bay, on the Island of Newfoundland, was settled in the year 1610, by about forty planters under governor John Guy, to whoin king James had given a patent of incorporation.
Champlain, a Frenchman, had begun a settlement at Quebec, 1608. St. Croix, Mount Mansel, and Port Roval were settled about the fame time. These settlements remained undisturbed till 1013, when the Virginians, hearing that the French had fettled within their limits, fent Capt, Argal to dislodge them. For this purpose he failed ro Sagadahok, took their forts at Mount Mansel, St. Croix, and Port Royal, with their vessels, ordnance, cattle, and provisions, and carried them to James-Town in Virginia. Quebec was left in poliellion of the French.
1614.] This year Capt.John Smith, with two ships and forty-five men and boys, made a voyage to North Virginia, to make experiments upon a gold and copper mine. His orders were, to fish and trade with the natives, if he should fail in his experations with regard to the mine. To facilitate this bufiness, he took with him Tantum, an Indian, perhaps one that Capt. Weymouth carried to England in 1605. In April he reached the Idland Monahigan in latitude 43° 30'. Here Capt. Smith was directed to stay and keep poffeffion, with ten men, for the purpose of making a trial of the whaling business, but being disappointed in this, he built seven boats, in which thirty-seven men made a very successful fishing voyage. In the mean time the captain himself, with eight men only, in a small boat, coasted from Penobscot to Sagadahok, Acocisco, Passataquack, Tragabizanda, now called Cape Ann, thence to Acomak, where he skirmished with fome Indians; thence to Cape Cod where he set his Indian Tantum alhore and left him, and returned to Monahigan. In this voyage he found two French tips in the Bay of Massachusetts, who had come there fix weeks before, and during that time, had been trading very advantageously with the Indians. It was conjectured that there were, at this time, three thoufand Indians upon the Massachusetts Inands.
In July, Capt. Smith embarked for England in one of the vessels, leaving the other under the command of Capt. Thomas Hunt, to equip for a voyage to Spain. After Capt. Smith's departure, Hunt perfidioully allured twenty Indians (one of whom was Squanto, afterwards fo ferviceable to
the English) to come on board his ship at Patuxit, and seven more at Nausit, and carried them to the Inland of Malaga, where he fold them for twenty pounds each, to be flaves for life. This conduct, which fixes an indelible ftigma upon the character of Hunt, excited in the breasts of the Indians fuch an inveterate hatred of the English, as that, for many years after, all commercial intercourse with them was rendered exceedingly dangerous.
Capt. Smith arrived at London the last of August, where he drew a map of the country, and called it New-ENGLAND. From this time North Virginia assumed the name of New England, and the name Virginia was confined to the southern colony.
Between the years 1614 and 1620, leveral attempts were made by the Plymouth company to settle New-England, but by various means they were all rendered ineffectual. During this time, however, an advantageous trade was carried on with the natives.
1617.] In the year 1617, Mr. Robinfon and his congregation, influenced by several weighty reasons, meditated a removal to America. Vari
ous difficulties intervened to prevent the success of their designs, 2620 until the year 1620, when a part of Mr. Robinson's congregation
came over and settled at Plymouth. At this time commenced the settlement of New-England.
The particulars relating to the first emigrations to this northern part of America; the progress of its settlement, &c. will be given in the history of New England, to which the reader is referred. In order to preserve the chronological order in which the several colo
nies, now grown into independent states, were first settled, it will be 1621 necessary that I should just mention, that the next year after the
settlement of Plymouth, Captain John Mason obtained of the Ply
mouth council a grant of a part of the present state of New-Hamp1623 fire. Two years after, under the authority of this grant, a
small colony fixed down near the mouth of Piscataqua river. From this period we may date the settlement of New-HAMPSHIRE.
1627.] In 1627, a colony of Swedes and Fins came over and landed at Cape Henlopen; and afterwards purchased of the Indians the land from Cape Henlopen to the Falls of Delaware on both sides the river, which they called New Swedeland Stream. On this river they built several forts, and made settlements.
1628.) On the 19th of March, 1628, the council for New England fold to Sir Henry Rofwell, and five others, a large tract of land, lying round Massachusetts Bay. The June following, Capt. John Endicot, with his wife and company, came over and settled at Naumkeag, now called Salem. This was the first English settlement which was made in MASSACHUSETTS Bay. Plymouth, indeed, which is now included in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, was settled eight years before, but at this time it was a separate colony, under a distinct government, and continued so until the fecond charter of Massachusetts was granted by William and Mary in 1691 ; by which Plymouth, the Province of Main and Sagadahok were annexed to Massachusetts.
June 13, 1633.] In the reign of Charles the Firit, Lord Baltimore, a Roman Catholic, applied for and obtained a grant of a tract of land