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By observation and experiment, the principal impregnation of the water is found to be a foslile acid, which is predominant in the taste. It is also strongly impregnated with a faline substance, which is very discernible in the taste of the water, and in the taste and smell of the petrified matter about it. From the corrosive and dissolving nature of the acid, the water acquires a chalybeate property, and receives into its composition a portion of calcareous earth, which, when separated, resembles an impure magnesia. As the different springs have no essential variance in the nature of their waters, but the proportions of the chalybeate impregnation, it is rendered probable that they are derived from one common source, but How in separate channels, where they have connection with metallic bodies, in greater or less proportions.
The prodigious quantity of air contained in this water, makes another diftinguishing property of it. This air, striving for enlargement, produces the fermentation and violent action of the water before described. After the water has stood a small time in an open vessel (no tight one will contain it) the air escapes, becomes vapid, and loses all that life and pungency which distinguish it when first taken from the pool. The pare ticles of diffolved earth are deposited as the water flows off, which, with the combination of the salts and fixt air, concrete and form the rocks about the springs.
The effects it produces upon the human body are various; the natural operation of it, when taken, is cathartick, in some instances an emetic, As it is drank, it produces an agreeable sensation in paffing over the organs of tafte, but as soon as it is swallowed, there succeeds an unpleasant taste, and the eructations which take place afterwards, cause a pungency very similar to that produced by a draught of cider or beer, in a state of fermentation.
The following curious experiments made on these waters, were extracted from Dr. Mitchell's Journal.
• A young turkey held a few inches above the water in the crater of the lower spring, was thrown into convulsions in less than half a minute, and gasping jewed signs of approaching death; but on removal from that place, and exposure to the fresh air, revived, and became lively. On immersion again for a minute in the gas, the bird was taken out languid and motionless.
A small dog put into the same cavity, and made to breathe the contained air, was, in less than one minute, thrown into convulsive motions--made to pant for breath, and lastly, to lose entirely the power to cry or move; when taken out, he was too weak to stand, but soon, in the common air, acquired strength enough to rise and stagger away.
A trout recently caught, and briskly swimming in a pail of brook water, was carefully put into a vessel just filled from the spring; the fish was instantly agitated with violent convulsions, gradually lost the capacity to move and poise itself, grew stupid and insensible, and in a few minutes was dead,
A candle repeatedly lighted and let down near the surface of the water, was suddenly extinguisbed, and not a veftige of light or fire remained on the wick,
These experiments nearly correspond with those usually made in Italy, at the famous GroTTO DEL Cani, for the entertainment of travellers; as mentioned by Keyser, Addison, and others.
A bottle filled with the water and shaken, emits suddenly a large quantity of aërial matter, that either forces out the cork, or makes a way beside or through it, or burits the vessel.
A quantity of wheaten flour, moistened with this water, and kneaded into dough, when made into cakes, and put into a baking-pan, rose, during the application of heat, into light and spongy bread, without the aid of yeast or leaven.
From which it appears, that the air extricated from the water is precisely similar to that produced by ordinary fermentation.
Some lime-water, made of abalactiles brought from the subterranean cave at Rhinebec, became immediately turbid on mixture with the spring water, but when the water had been lately drawn, the precipitate was quickly re-dissolved.
Some of the rock surrounding the spring, on being put into the fire, calcined to quick lime, and Nacked well.
When the aërial matter has evaporated, the water loses its transparency and lets fall a calca reous sediment.
Whence it is true, that the gas is aërial acid, that the rock is lime-stone, and that by means of the former, the water becomes capable of dissolving and conveying the latter.'
Minerals and follils.] This state embosoms vast quantities of iron ore. Naturalists have observed that ore in swamps and pondy ground, vegetates and increases. There is a silver mine at Phillipsburg, which produces virgin filver. Spar, zink or spelter, a semi-metal, magnez, used in glazings, peritus, of a golden hue, various kinds of copper ore, and lead and coal mines are found in this state. Also petrified wood, plaiter of Paris, ising-glass in sheets, talks and chrystals of various kinds and colours, albeitos, and several other fossils. A small black stone has also been found, which vitrifies with a small heat, and makes excellent glass.
Literary and Humane Societies.] There are very few societies for improvement in knowledge or liumanity in this state; and these few are in the city of New York. The first is · The society for promoting useful knowledge.'. This society is upon an establishment fimilar to other philosophical societies in Europe and America, but is not incorporated. The members meet once a month. Secondly, · The society for the manumission of Naves, and protecting such of them as have been or may be liberated. This society meets once a quarter. Both these focieties confist of gentlemen of the first character in the city, and of some in other parts of the state. Befides there, there is the Philological society,' instituted in 1788. This growing society has for its principal object the improvement of the Englit language.
Literature, Colleges, Academies, &c.] Until the year 1754, there was no college in the province of New York. The state of literature, at that çime, I shall give in the words of their historian, Our schools are in
the lowest order'; the instructors want instruction, and through a long and shameful neglect of all the arts and sciences, our common speech is extremely corrupt, and the evidences of a bad taste, both as to thought and language, are visible in all our proceedings, public and private.' This was undoubtedly a juft representation at the time when it was written; and although much attention has fince been paid to education in some populous towns, the observations are now but 100 juftly applicable to the country at large. There are many flourishing academies and grammar schools, lately established in the state; but many parts of the country are either unfurnished with schools, or the schools which they have are kept by low ignorant men, and are worse than none; for children had better remain in ignorance than be ill taught. But a great proportion of the United States are in the same situation in regard to schools.
King's-College, in the city of New York, was principally founded by the voluntary contributions of the inhabitants of the province, affifted by the general assembly, and the corporation of Trinity church, in the year 1754, a royal charter being then obtained, incorporating a number of gentlemen therein mentioned, by the name of “ The governors of the college of the province of New York, in the city of New York, in Ame. rica;” and granting to them and their successors for ever, amongst vari. ous other rites and privileges, the power
of conferring all such degrees, as are usually conferred by either of the English universities.
By the charter it was provided that the president shall always be a mem. ber of the church of England, and that a form of prayer collected from the liturgy of that church, with a particular prayer for the college, thall be daily used, morning and evening, in the college chapel; at the fame time, no test of their religious persuasion was required from any of the fellows, professors or tutors; and the advantages of education were equally extended to itudents' of all denominations.
The building (which is only one third of the intended structure) confifts of an elegant stone edifice, three complete ftories high, with four ftair cafes, twelve apartments in each, a chapel, hall, library, museum, anatomical theatre, and a school for experimental philosophy.
All students, but those in medicine, before the revolution, were obliged to lodge and diet in the college, unless they were particularly exempted by the governors or president; and for the security of their morals, &c. the editice was surrounded by an high fence, which also encloses a large court and garden; and a porter ufed constantly to attend at the front gate, which was locked at ten o'clock each evening in summer, and at nine in winter; after which hours, the names of all that came in were delivered weekly to the president.
The college is situated on a dry gravelly foil, about 150 yards from the bank of Hudson's river, which it overlooks; commanding a most extensive and beautiful prospect.
Since the revolution the literature of the state has engaged the attention of the legislature. In one of their late sessions an act passed conftituting twenty-one gentlemen (of whom the governor and lieutenant governor, for the time being, are members ex officiis) a body corporate and politic, by the name and stile of • The regents of the university of the state of New York. They are entrusted with the care of literature in general
in the state, and have power to grant charters of incorporation for erect. ing colleges and academies throughout the state--are to visit these institutions as often as they shall think proper, and report their state to the legislature once a year. All degrees above that of master of arts are to be conferred by the regents.
King's college, which we have already described, is now called COLUMBIA COLLEGE. This college, by an act of the legislature passed in the spring of 1787, was put under the care of twenty-four gentlemen, who are a body corporate, by the name and style of • The trustees of Columbia college, in the city of New-York.' This body possesses all the powers vested in the governors of King's college, before the revolution, or in the scgents of the university, since the revolution, so far as their power refpected this inftitution, except the conferring of the higher degrees. No regent can be a trustee of any particular college or academy in the state.
The college edifice has received no additions since the peace. The funds produce, annually, about £ 1000. The library and museum were destroyed during the war. The philosophical apparatus cost about 300 guineas. Until the revolution the college did not flourish. The plan upon which it was originally founded, was contracted, and its situation unfavourable. The former objection is removed, but the latter must remain. It has between thirty and forty students, in four classes. The number for several years has been increasing. The officers of instruction and immediate government are, a president, professor of languages, pro. fessor of mathematics, professor of logic and rhetoric, profetior of natural philosophy, professor of geography, and a professor of moral philosophy. There are many other professors belonging to the university, but their professorships are mere honorary.
There are several academies in the state. One is at Flatbush, in King's county, on Long-INand, four miles from Brooklyn-ferry. It is situated in a pleasant, healthy village. The building is large, handfome, and convenient, and is called Erasmus Hall. The academy is flourishing under the care of a principal and other subordinate instructors. The trustces of this inftitution have been incorporated by the regents of the university
There is a very flourishing academy at East Hampton, on the east end of Long-INand; to which also the regents have given a charter of incora poration by the name of Clinton ACADEMY.
There are other academies, or more properly grammar schools, in different parts of the state. There are several in the city of New York, furnished with able instructors; one at Kingston, in Ulfter county ; one at Goshen, in the county of Orange; two at Albany ; one at Skenectady; one at Lansingburgh, and another at West Chester. None of these have yet applied for charters. Besides these, in many parts of the state there are schools erected, which are maintained by the voluntary contributions of the parents. A spirit for literary improvement, is evidently diffusing its influence throughout the state.
Religion.] The constitution of this state provides for the free exercise and tnjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, within the state, for all mankind. Provided that the
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liberty of confcience hereby granted, shall not be fo construed as to ex: cuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace and safety of the state.'
The various religious denominations in this state, with the number of their respective congregations, are as follows:
Denominations. Non Congregations. Denominations. No. Congregations, English Prefbyterian,
87 German Lutheran, Dutch Reformed,
66 Moravians, Including fix of the German Methodists, language.)
Roman Catholic, Baptists,
unknown. Friends, or Quakers.
The presbyterian churches are governed by congregational, presbyterial, and fynodical assemblies. These assemblies polless no civil jurisdiction. Their power is wholly moral or fpiritual, and that only ministerial and declarative. They possess the right of requiring obedience to the laws of Christ, and of excluding the disobedient from the privileges of the church; and the powers requisite for obtaining evidence and inflicting censure; but the highest punishment, to which their authority extends, is to exclude the contumacious and impenitent from the congregation of believers.
The church l-lion, which is the congregational assembly, consists of the minister or ministers and elders of a particular congregation. This body is inveited with the spiritual government of the congregation.
A presbytery consists of all the ministers, and one ruling elder from each congregation, within a certain district. Three ministers and three elders, conftitutionally convened, are competent to do business. This body have cognizance of all things that regard the welfare of the particular churches within their bounds, which are not cognizable by the feslion. Also, they have a power of receiving and issuing appeals from the sessions -of examining and licensing candidates for the miniftry-of ordaining, settling, removing, or judging ministers--of resolving questions of doctrine or discipline, and whatever else pertains to the spiritual concerns of the churches under their care.
A Synod is a convention of several presbyteries. The fynod have power to admit and judge of appeals, regularly brought up from the presbyteries—to give their judgment on all references made to them, of an ecclefiaftical kind--to correct and regulate the proceedings of presbyteries, &c.
The highest judicatory of the presbyterian church is stiled The general council of the presbyterian church in the United States of America. This grand council is to confift of an equal delegation of bishops and elders from each presbytery within their jurisdiction, by the title of commissioners' to the general council. Fourteen commissioners make a quorum. The council constitute the bond of union, peace, correspondence, and mutual confidence among all their churches; and have power to receive and issue all appeals and references which may regularly be brought before them from the inferior judicatories to regulate and correct the proceedings of