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Kingston is the county town of Ulster. Before it was burnt by the British, in 1777, it contained about 200 houses, regularly built, on an elevated dry plain, at the mouth of a little pleasant it reain, called Eufo. pus Kill or creek, that empties into the Hudson, but is nearly two miles west from the river. The town has been rebuilt.
Skenectady is fixteen iniles north-weft of Albany, in Albany county, situated on the banks of the Mohawks river. The town is compact and regular, built principally of brick, on a rich flat of low land, surrounded with hills. The windings of the river through the town and the fields, which are often overflowed in the spring, afford a beautiful prospect about harvest time. As it is at the foot of navigation on a long river, which passes through a very fertile country, and is the medium of all the wel. tern trade through the lakes, that comes down the Hudson, it must grow rich in proportion as the country west of it populates.
Agriculture and Manufactures.j New-York is at least half a century be. hind her neighbours in New-England, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, in point of improvement in agriculture and manufactures. Among other reasons for this deficiency, that of want of enterprize in the inhabitants is not the least. Indeed their local advantages have been such, as that they have grown rich without enterprize. Besides, lands have hitherto been cheap, and farms of course large; and it requires much less ingenuity to raise 1000 bushels of wheat upon 60 acres of land, than to raise the same quantity upon 30 acres. So long, therefore, as the farmer in New-York can have 60 acres of land to raise 1000 bushels of wheat, he will never trouble himself to find out how he can raise the same quantity upon half the land. It is population alone that stamps a value upon lands, and lays a foundation for high improvements in agriculture. When a man is obliged to maintain a family upon a small farm, his invention is exercised to find out every improvement that may render it more productive. This appears to be the great reason why the lands on Delaware and Connecticut rivers produce to the farmer twice as much clear profit, as lands in equal quantity and of the same quality upon the Hudson. If the preccding observations be just, improvements will keep pace with population and the increasing value of lands. Another cause which has heretofore operated in preventing agricultural improvements in this state, has been their government, which, in the manner it was conducted until the revolution, was extremely unfavourable to improvements of almost every kind, and particularly in agriculture. The governors were many of them land-jobbers, bent on making their fortunes ; and being invested with power to do this, they either engrossed for themselves, or patented away to their particular favourites, a very great proportion of the whole province. This, as has been before observed, proved an effectual bar to population, and of course, according to our present hypothesis, has kept down the price of lands, and so prevented improvements in agriculture. It ought to be observed, in this connection, that these overgrown estates could be cultivated only by the hands of tenants, who, having no right in the soil, and no certain prospect of continuing upon the farm, which they hold at the will of their landlord, had no motives to make those expensive improvements, which, though not immediately productive, would prove very profitable in some future period. The tenant, depen
dent on his landlord for his annual support, confines his views and improvements to the present year; while the independent freeholder, secure of his estate for himself and his successors, carries his views into fucurity, and early lays the foundation for growing improvement. But these obstacles have been removed, in a great ineasure, by the revolution,
The fine fertile country of the Mohawks, in Montogmery county, which was formerly poflessed by Sir William Johnson, and other land-jobbers, who were enemies to their country, has been forfeited to the ftate, and is now split up into freehold eltates, and settling with astonishing rapidity.
The foregoing observations will, in a great measure, account for the great neglect of manufactural improvements. Smith, whom I have so often quoted, thirty years ago observed, · It is much owing to the disproportion between the number of our inhabitants, and the vast tracts ftill remaining to be settled, that we have not as yet entered upon scarcely any other manufactures, than such as are indispensibly neceffary for our home convenience. This fame cause has operated ever since, in the same way.
Great improvements in agriculture cannot be expected (unless they are made by a few individuals who have a particular genius for that busi, ness) so long as lands are plenty and cheap; and improvements in manufactures never precede, but invariably follow improvements in agricul. ture. These observations apply more particularly to the country. The city of New York contains a great number of people, who are employed in the various branches of manufactures. Among many other articles manufactured in this city are the following: wheel-carriages of all kinds, loaf-sugar, bread, beer, moes and boots, sadlery, cabinet-work, cutlery, hats, clocks, watches, potters ware, umbrellas, all kinds of mathematical and musical instruments, ships, and everything necessary for their equipment. A glass-work and feveral iron-works have been established in different parts of the country, but they never have been very productive, owing solely to the want of workmen, and the high price of labour, its neceílary consequence; for the internal resources and advantages for these manufactories, such as ore, wood, water, hearth-stone, proper situations for bloomeries, forges, and all kinds of water-works, are immense. There are several paper-Inills in the state, which are worked to advantage.
Trade.] The situation of New York, with respect to foreign markets, has decidedly the preference to any of the states. 'It has, at all seasons of the year, a short and easy access to the ocean. We have already mentioned, that it commands the trade of a great proportion of the best fettled and best cultivated parts of the United States. It has been supposed, by gentlemen well informed, that more wealth is conveyed down Connecricut river, and through the Sound to New-York, than down the Hudson. This is not improbable, as the banks of the Connecticut are more fertile, and much thicker and more extensively settled than the banks of the Hudson. New-York has not been unmindful of her superior local advantages, but has availed herself of them to their full extent. Some of her commercial regulations have been viewed as oppressive and injurious