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family, at this time, in all the valt extent of coast from Florida to Greenland.
1603.) Martin Pring and William Brown, were this year sent by Sir Walter Raleigh, with two small vessels, to make discoveries in North Virginia. They came upon the coast which was broken with a multitude of islands, in latitude 43° 30' north. They coasted fouthward to Cape Cod Bay ; thence round the Cape into a commodious harbour in latitude 41° 25', where they went alhore and tarried seven weeks, during which time they loaded one of their vessels with sassafras, and returned to England.
Bartholomew Gilbert, in a voyage to South Virginia, in search of the third colony which had been left there by Governor White in 1587, having touched at several of the West-India Inands, landed near Chesapeek Bay, where, in a skirmish with the Indians, he and four of his men were unfortunately slain. The rest, without any further search for the colony, returned to England.
France, being at this time in a state of tranquility in consequence of the edict of Nantz in favour of the Protestants, pafled by Henry IV, (April 1598) and of the peace with Philip king of Spain and Portugai, was induced to pursue her discoveries in America. Accordingly the king figned a patent in favor of De Mons, (1603) of all the country
from the 40th to the 40th degrees of north latitude under the name 1604 of Acadia. The next year De Mons ranged the coait from St.
Lawrence to Cape Sable, and so round to Cape Cod. 1605.) In May 1605, George's Inand and Pentecost Harbour were discovered by Capt. George Weymouth. In May he entered a large river in latitude 43° 20', (variation 11° 15' welt,) which Mr. Prince, in his Chronology, supposes must have been Sagadahok; but from the latitude, it was more probably the Piscataqua. Capt. Weymouth carried with him to England five of the natives.
1606.] In the Spring of this year, James I. by patent, divided Virginia into two colonies. The southern included all lands between the 34th and 41st degrees of north latitude. This was styled the first colony, under the name of South Virginia, and was granted to the London Company. The northern, called the second colony, and known by the general name of North Virginia, included all lands between the 38th and 4.5th degrees north latitude, and was granted to the Plymouth Company. Each of these colonies had a council of thirteen men to govern them. To prevent difputes about territory, the colonies were prohibited to plant within an hundred miles of each other. There appears to be an inconsistency in these grants, as the lands lying between the 38th and 41st degrees, are covered by both patents.
Both the London and Plymouth companies enterprized settlements within the limits of their respective grants. With what success will now be mentioned.
Mr. Piercy, brother of the Earl of Northumberland, in the service of the London Company, went over with a colony to Virginia, and discovered Powhatan, now James River. In the mean time the Plymouth Company sent Capt. Henry Challons in a vessel of fifty-five tons to plant a colony in North Virginia ; but in his voyage he was taken by a Spanish fieet and carried to Spain.
1607.] The London company this spring, fent Capt. Christopher New, April 26.1 port with three vesels to South Virginia. On the 26th of April he entered Chesapeek Bay, and landed, and soon after gave to the most
southern point, the name of Cape Henry, which it still retains, May 13,] Having elected Mr. Edward Wingfield president for the year,
they next day landed all their men, and began a settlement on
James river, at a place which they called James-Town. This is June 22.] the first town that was settled by the English in North Ame
rica. The June following Capt. Newport failed for England, leaving with the president one hundred and four persons.
August 22.] In Auguft died Capt. Bartholomew Gosnold, the first projector of this settlement, and one of the council. The following winter James-Town was burnt,
During this time the Plymouth company fitted out two ships under the command of Admiral Rawley Gilbert. They failed for North Virginia on the 31st of May, with one hundred planters, and Capt. George Popham for their president. They arrived in August, and settled about nine or ten leagues to the southward of the mouth of Sagadahok river. A great part of the colony, however, disheartened by the severity of the winter, returned to England in December, leaving their president, Capt. Popham, with only forty-five men.
It was in the fall of this year that the fainous Mr. Robinson, with part of his congregation, who afterwards settled at Plymouth in New-England, removed from the North of England to Holland, to avoid the cruelties of persecution, and for the sake of enjoying “ purity of worship and liberty of conscience."
This year a small company of merchants at Dieppe and St. Malo's. founded Quebec, or rather the colony which they sent, built a few huts there, which did not take the form of a town until the reign of Lewis XIV.
1608.] The Sagadahok colony suffered incredible hardships after the departure of their friends in December. In the depth of winter, which was extremely cold, their store-house caught fire and was consumed, with most of their provisions and lodgings. Their misfortunes were increased, foon after, by the death of their president. Rawley Gilbert was appointed to succeed him.
Lord Chief Justice Popham made every exertion to keep this colony alive by repeatedly sending them fupplies. But the circumstance of his death, which happened this year, together with that of president Gilbert's being called to England to settle his affairs, broke up the colony, and they all returned with him to England.
The unfavourable reports which these firft unfortunate adventurers propagated respecting the country, prevented any further attempts to settle North Virginia for several years after.
1609.) The London company, last year, sent Capt. Nelson, with two ships and one hundred and twenty persons, to James-Town; and this year Capt. John Smith, afterwards president, arrived on the coast of South Virginia, and by failing up a number of the rivers, discovered the interior country. In September, Capt. Newport arrived with seventy persons, which increased the colony to two hundred fouls,
Mr. Mr. Robinson and his congregation, who had settled at Amsterdam, removed this year to Leyden, where they remained more than eleven years, till a part of them came over to New England. the English) to come on board his ship at Patuxit, and seven more at Nausit, and carried them to the Inand of Malaga, where he sold them for twenty pounds each, to be flaves for life. This conduct, which fixes an indelible ftigma upon the character of Hunt, excited in the breasts of the Indians fuch an inveterate hatred of the English, as that, for many years after, all commercial intercourse with them was rendered exceedingly dangerous.
The council for South Virginia having resigned their old commision, requested and obtained a new one ; in consequence of which they appointed Sir Thomas West, Lord De la War, general of the colony ; Sir Thomas Gates, his lieutenant ; Sir Geerge Somers, Admiral ; Sir Thomas Dale, high marshal; Sir Ferdinand Wainman, general of the horse, and Capt. Newport, vice-admiral.
June 8.] In June, Sir T. Gates, admiral Newport, and Sir George Somers, with seven ships and a ketch and pinnace, having five hundred souls
on board, men, women, and children, failed from Falmouth for July 24.] South Virginia. In crossing the Bahama Gulf, on the 24th
July, the feet was overtaken by a violent storm, and separated, Four days after, Sir George Somers ran his veisel ashore on one of the Bermudas Islands, which, from this circumstance, have been called the Somer Isands. The people on board, one hundred and fifty in number, all got safe on shore, and there remained until the following May.
The remainder of the fleet arrived at Virginia in August. The colony was now increased to five hundred men. Capt. Smith, then president, a little before the arrival of the fieet, had been very badly burnt by means of some powder which had accidentally caught fire. This unfortunate circumstance, together with the opposition he met with from those who had lately arrived, induced him to leave the colony and return to England, which he accordingly did the last of September. Francis West, his successor in office, foon followed him, and George Piercy was elected president. **1610.] The year following, the South Virginia or London company, sealed a patent to Lord De la War, constituting him Governor and Captain-General of South-Virginia. He soon after embarked for America with Capt. Argal and one hundred and fifty men, in three ships.
· The unfortunate people, who, the year before, had been shipwrecked on the Bermudas Illands, had employed themselves during the winter and spring, under the direction of Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, and admiral Newport, in building a floop to transport themselves to the continent. They embarked for Virginia on the roth of May, with about one hundred and fifty persons on board, leaving two of their men behind, who chose to stay, and landed at James-Town on the 23d of the saine month. Finding the colony, which at the time of Capt. Smith's departure, confilted of five hundred souls, now reduced to fixty, and those few in a dirtressed and wretched situation, they with one voice resolved to return to England; and for this purpose, on the 7th of June, the wholc colony repaired on board their vessels, broke up the settlement, and failed down the river on their way to their native country.
Fortunately, Lord De la War, who had embarked for James-Town the March before, met them the day after they failed, and persuaded them to return with him to James-Town, where they arrived and landed the Toth of June.. The government of the colony of right devolved upon Lord De la War. From this time we may date the effectual settlement of Virginia. Its history, from this period, will be given in its proper place,
Capt. Smith arrived at London the last of August, where he drew a map of the country, and called it NEW-ENGLAND. From this time North Virginia affumed the name of New-England, and the name Vir. ginia was confined to the southern colony.
Between the years 1614 and 1620, several attempts were made by the Plymouth company to settle New England, but by various means they were all rendered ineffectual. During this time, however, an advantage. ous trade was carried on with the natives.
1617.] In the year 1617, Mr. Robinson and his congregation, influ. enced by several weighty reasons, meditated a removal to America. Vari
ous difficulties intervened to prevent the success of their designs, 1620 until the year 1620, when a part of Mr. Robinson's congregation
came over and settled at Plymouth. At this time commenced the settlement of New England.
The particulars relating to the first cmigrations to this northern part of America; the progress of its settlement, &c. will be given in the history of New-England, to which the reader is referred. In order to preserve the chronological order in which the several colo
nies, now grown into independent states, were first settled, it will be 1621 necessary that I should just mention, that the next year after the
settlement of Plymouth, Captain John Mason obtained of the Ply
mouth council a grant of a part of the present state of New Hamp1623 fire. Two years after, under the authority of this grant, a
small colony fixed down near the mouth of Piscataqua river, From this period we may date the settlement of New-HAMPSHIRE.
1627.) In 1627, a colony of Swedes and Fins came over and landed at Cape Henlopen; and afterwards purchased of the Indians the land from Cape Henlopen to the Falls of Delaware on both sides the river, which they called Vew Swedeland Stream. On this river they built several forts, and made settlements.
1628.) On the roth of March, 1628, the council for New-England fold to Sir Henry Rofwell, and five others, a large tract of land, lying sound Massachusetts Bay. The June following, Capt. John Endicot, with his wife and company, came over and settled at Naumkeag, now called Salem. This was the first English settlement which was made in MASSACHUSETTS Bay, Plymouth, indeed, which is now included in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, was settled eight years before, but at this time it was a separate colony, under a distinct government, and continued so until the second charter of Massachusetts was granted by William and Mary in 1691 ; by which Plymouth, the Province of Main and Sagadahok were annexed to Massachusetts.
June 13, 1633.] In the reign of Charles the Firit, Lord Baltimore, a Roman Catholic, applied for and obtained a grant of a tract of land