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The banks of Hudson's river, efpecially on the western fide, are chiefly rocky cliffs. The paffage through the Highlands, which is sixteen miles, affords a wild, romantic scene. In this narrow país, on each side of which the mountains tower to a great height, the wind, if there be any, is collected and compreiled, and blows continually as through a bellows. Vessels, in passing through it, are ofien obliged to lower their fails. The bed of this river, which is deep and smooth to an astonishing distance, through a hilly, rocky country, and even through ridges of some of the highest mountains in the United States, muft undoubtedly have been produced by some mighty convulsion in nature. The tide flows a few miles above Albany, which is 160 miles from New-York. It is navigable for loops of 80 tons to Albany, and for ships to Hudson. About 60 miles above New-York the water becomes freí. The river is stored with a variety of fish, which renders a summer pallage to Albany delight. ful and amuling to those who are fond of angling.
The advantages of this river for carrying on the fur-trade with Canada, by means of the lakes, have already been mentioned. Its convenience for internal commerce are fingularly great. The produce of the remotest farms is easily and speedily convered to a certain and profitable market, and at the lowest expence. In this refpect, New-York has greatly the advantage of Philadelphia. A great proportion of the produce of Pennsylvania is carried to market in waggons, over a great extent of country, fome of which is rough: kence it is that Philadelphia is crouded with waggons, carts, horses and their drivers, to do the same butincts that is done in New-York, where all the produce of the country is brought to market by water, with much less thew and parade. But Pennsylvania has other advantages, which will be mentioned in their proper place, to compenfate for this natural defect. The increasing population of the fertile lands upon the northern branches of the Hudson, muft annually increase the amazing wealth that is conveyed by its waters to New-York.
The river St. Lawrence divides this state from Canada. It rises in Lake Ontario, runs north-eastward-embosoms Montreal, which stands upon an island--passes by Quebec, and empties, by a broad mouth, into the bay of St. Lawrence. Among a variety of fish in this river are falmon. They are found as far up as the falls of Niagara, which they cannot pass.
Onondago river rises in the lake of the fame name, runs westwardly into Lake Ontario at Olwego. It is boatable from its mouth to the head of the lake; (except a fall which occasions a portage of twenty yards) thence batteaux go up Wood creek, almoft to Fort Scanwix; whence there is a portage of a mile to Mohawks river. Toward the head waters of this river salmon are caught in great quantities.
Mohawks river rises to the northward of Fort Stanwix, and runs southwardly to the fort, then eastward 110 miles, into the Hudson. The produce that is conveyed down this river is landed at Skenectady, and is thence carried by land sixteen miles, over a barren, shrub plain, to Albany. Except á portage of about a mile, occasioned by the little falls, fixty miles above Skenectady, the river is paflable for boats, from Skenectady, nearly or quite to its source. The Cohoez, in this river, are a great curiosity. They are about two miles from its entrance into the
The settlements already made in this state, are chiefly upon two nar: fow oblongs, extending from the city of New York, east and north, R 3
Montgomery, 1" Johnston, 15,0571 405)
1 238,897118,889 4. 24,000 120 * These two counties were not constituted in 1786, when the above cnumeration was made, and were included in fome of the other counties.
+ These counties are claimed by New-York, but are within the limits, and under the jurisdictions of Vermont,
* Not mentioned in the ači,