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This wolf, at length, became such an intolerable nuisance, that Mr. Putnam entered into a combination with five of his neighbours to hunt alternately until they could destroy her. Two, by rotation, were to be constantly in pursuit. It was known, that, having lost the toes from one foot, by a steel trap, she made one track shorter than the other.
By this vestige, the pursuers recognized, in a light snow, the route of this pernicious animal. Having followed her to Connecticut river, and found the had turned back in a direct course towards Pomfret, they immediately returned, and by ten the next morning the blood-hounds had driven her into a den, about three miles distant from the house of Mr. Putnam: the people soon collected with dogs, guns, straw, fire and fulphur, to attack the common enemy. With this apparatus several unsuccessful efforts were made to force her from the den. The hounds came back badly wounded, and refused to return. The smoke of blazing straw had no ef. feft. Nor did the fumes of burnt brimstone, with which the cavern was filled, compel her to quit the retirement. Wearied with such fruitless ate tempts (which had brought the time to ten o'clock at night) Mr. Putnam tried once more to make his dog enter, but in vain; he proposed to his negro man to go down into the cavern and foot the wolf: the negro declined the hazardous service. Then it was that their master, angry at the disappointment, and declaring that he was alhamed to have a coward in his family, resolved himself to destroy the ferocious beast, left the should escape through some unknown fissure of the rock. His neighbours strongly remonstrated against the perilous enterprize: but he, knowing that wild animals were intimidated by fire, and having provided several Atrips of birch-bark, the only combustible material which he could obtain, that would afford light in this deep and darksome cave, prepared for his descent. Having, accordingly, divested himself of his coat and waistcoat, and having a long rope faftened round his legs, by which he might be pulled back, at a concerted signal, he entered head foremost, with the blazing torch in his hand.
The aperture of the den, on the east side of a very high ledge of rocks, is about two feet square ; from thence it descends obliquely fifteen feet, then running horizontally about ten more, it ascends gradually fixteen feet towards its termination. The fides of this subterraneous cavity are composed of smooth and folid rocks, which seem to have been divided from each other by some former earthquake. The top and bottom are also of stone, and the entrance, in winter, being covered with ice, is exceedingly slippery. It is in no place high enough for a man to raise himself upright: nor in any part more than three feet in width.
Having groped his passage to the horizontal part of the den, the most terrifying darkness appeared in front of the dim circle of light afforded by his torch. It was silent as the house of death. None but monsters of the desert had ever before explored this folitary manfion of horror. He, cautiously proceeding onward, came to the ascent; which he slowly mounted on his hands and knees until he discovered the glaring eye-balls of the wolf, who was sitting at the extremity of the cavern. Startled at the fight of fire, the gnashed
her teeth, and gave a fullen growl. As soon as he had made the necessary discovery, he kicked the rope as a signal for pulling him out. The people, at the mouth of the den, who had 9
listened with painful anxiety, hearing the growling of the wolf, and fup posing their friend to be in the most imminent danger, drew him forth with such celerity, that his shirt was stripped over his head, and his skin severely lacerated. After he had adjusted his cloaths, and loaded his gun with nine buck-shot, holding a torch in one hand, and the musquet in the other, he descended a second time. When he drew nearer than before, the wolf, assuming a ftill more fierce and terrible appearance, howling, rolling her eyes, snapping her teeth, and dropping her head between her legs, was evidently in the attitude, and on the point of springing at him. At the critical instant he levelled and fired at her head. Stunned with the shock, and fuffocated with the smoak, he immediately found himself drawn out of the cave. But having refreshed himself, and permitted the smoke to dissipate, he went down the third time. Once more he came within fight of the wolf, who appearing very passive, he applied the torch to her nose; and perceiving her dead, he took hold of her ears, and then kicking the rope (still tied round his legs) the people above, with no small exultation, dragged them both out together.
Another bold and almost presumptuous deed, in this veteran hero, has rendered remarkable a precipice at Horseneck, in this state. The ftory is this. • About the iniddle of the winter 1778, general Putnam was on a visit to his out-post at Horseneck, he found governor Tryon advancing upon that town with a corps of fifteen hundred men-to oppose these, general Putnam had only a picket of one hundred and fifty men, and cwo iron field-pieces, without horse or drag-ropes. He, however, planted his cannon on the high ground by the meeting house, and retarded their approach by firing several times, until, perceiving the horse (supported by the infantry) about to charge, he ordered the picket to provide for their safety by retiring to a swamp inaccessible to horse; and secured his own by plunging down the steep precipice at the church upon a full trot. This precipice is so steep, where he descended, as to have artificial stairs composed of nearly one hundred stone steps for the accommodation of foot passengers. There the dragoons, who were bat a sword's length from him, stopped short. For the declivity was so abrupt, that they ventured not to follow; and, before they could gain the valley by going round the brow of the hill in the ordinary road, he was far enough beyond their reach.'
Tecoket mountain in Branford, latitude 41° 26', on the north-west part of it, a few feet below the surface, has ice in large quantities in all seasons
Colleges, Academies, and Schools.] In no part of the world is the education of all ranks of people more attended to than in Connecticut. Al most every town in the ftate is divided into districts, and each district has a public school kept in it a greater or less part of every year. Somewhat more than one third of the monies arising from a tax on the polls and ratable estate of the inhabitants, is appropriated to the support of schools, in the several towns, for the education of children and youth. The law directs that a grammar-school shall be kept in every county town through. out the state.
There is a grammar-school at Hartford, and another at New Haven, fupported by a donation of governor Hopkins. This vencrable and be
of the year.
nevolent gentleman, in his last will, dated 1657, left, in the hands of Theophilus Eaton, Esq. and three others, a legacy of £6.1324, ` as an encouragement, in these foreign plantations, of breeding up hopeful youths both at the grammar-school and college. In 1664, this legacy was equally divided between New-Haven and Hartford; and grammar.schools were erected, which have been supported ever since.
At Greenfield there is a respectable academy, under the care and instruction of the Rev. Dr. Dwight. At Plainfield is another, under the care of the Rev. Mr. Benedict. This academy has flourished for several years, and furnished a number of students for Yale and Dartmouth colleges. At Norwich and Windham, likewise, are academies furnished with able instructors; each of these academies have fixty or seventy scholars.
YALE COLLEGE was founded in 1700, and remained at Killingworth until 1-07—then at Saybrook, until 1716, when it was removed and fixe ed at New-Haven. Among its principal benefactors was governor Yale, in honor of whom, in 1718, it was named YALE COLLEGE. Its first building was erected in 1717, being 170 feet in length, and 22 in breadth, built of wood. This was taken down in 1782. The present college edifice, which is of brick, was built in 1750, under the direction of the Rev. President Clap, and is 100 feet long, and 40 feet wide, three ftories high, and contains thirty-two chambers, and fixiy-four studies, convenient for the reception of a hundred students. The college chapel, which is also of brick, was built in 1761, being fifty feet by forty, with a steeple 125 feet high. In this building is the public library, confifting of about 2500 volumes; and the philofophical apparatus, which is at prefent incomplete. It contains, however, the principal machines necessary for exhibiting most of the experiments in the whole course of experimental philosophy and astronomy. The sum of £•300, collected by subscriptions, is now in readiness to be expended in the purchase of such other instruments and machines, as will render the philofophical apparatus complete.
The college museum, to which additions are constantly making, conrains fome great natural curioficies.
This literary inftitution was incorporated by the general assembly of Connecticut. The first charter of incorporation was granted to eleven ministers, under the denomination of trustees, 1701. The powers of the truflees were enlarged by the additional charter, 1723. And by that of 1745, the trustees were incorporated by the name of The President and Fellows of Yale college, New Haven. The corporation are empowered to hold estates, continue their succesiion, make academic laws, eleet and constitute all officers of instruction and government, usual in universities, and confer all learned degrees. The ordinary executive government is in the hands of the president and tutors. The present officers of the college are, a president, who is also professor of ecclefiaftical history, a profetior of divinity, and thrce tutors. The number of students for several years pait has been from 150 to 250, divided into four clafles. The prelent nunber is about 140. It is worthy of remark, that as many as five-sixths of those who have received their educations at this university, were natives et Connecticut.
In 1732, the Rev. George Berkley, D. D. then dean of Derry, and -afterwarus bishop of Cloyne, in Ireland, made a generous donation of 880
volumes of books, and an estate in Rhode-Inand, that rents yearly for 100 ounces of silver-which is divided into three parts, and annually appropriated to the three best scholars in the Latin and Greek clallics. This has proved a great incentive among the students to excel in classical learning. The first donation to the college in land, consisting of about 600 acres, was made by major James Fitch, in 1701. The general assembly, in 1732, gave 1500 acres within the state. Dr. Daniel Lathrop, of Norwich, added a donation of £:500 to the college funds in 1781. The course of education, in this university, comprehends the whole circle of literature. The three learned languages are taught, together with so much of the sciences as can be communicated in four years. Great attention is paid to oratory and the belles lettres.
In May and September, annually, the several classes are critically examined in all their classical studies. As incentives to improvement in composition and oratory, quarterly exercises are appointed by the president and tutors, to be exhibited by the respective classes in rotation. A public commencement is held annually, on the second Wednesday in September, which calls together a more numerous and brilliant assembly, than are convened by any other anniversary in the state.
Two thousand and eighty have received the honours of this university;
1707 1719 Timothy Cutler, S. T. D.
Mode of levying taxes.] All free-holders in the state are required by law, to give in litts of their polls and rateable estate *, to persons appointed in the respective towns to receive them, on or before the roth of Sept. annually. These are valued according to law, arranged in proper order, and sent to the general assembly annually in May.
* In Connetticat, horfes, horned cattle, improved and unimproved lard, boufes, shipping, all sorts of riding carriages, clocks and watches, pilver plate and money at intereft, are rateable estate. All males between fixieen and seventy years of age, unless exempted by law, are subjects of taxation. Qz
The fum total of the list of the polls and rateable estate of the inhabitants of Connecticut, as brought into the general affembly in May, 1787, was as follows: Sum total of the single lift,
4:1,484,901 : 6:4:1 Aflefsments,
47,790 : 2:9 One quarter of the fourfolds,
1,176: 9:4 Total,
£.1,533,867:18:5:2 On this fum taxes are levied, so much on the pound, according to the fum proposed to be raised. A tax of two-pence on the pound, would raise 2.12,782 : 450
The ordinary annual expences of government before the war, amounted to near ...4000 sterling, exclusive of that which was appropriated to the support of schools. The expences have since increased.
Mineral springs. At Stafford is a medicinal spring, which is said to be a sovereign remedy for scorbutic, cutaneous and other disorders. At Guilford is a spring, whose water, it is said, when separated from the fountain, will evaporate even when put into a bottle, and tightly corked.
Constitution and Courts of Justice.] It is difficult to say what is the confitution of this state. Contented with the form of government which originated from the charter of Charles II. granted in 1662, the people have not been disposed to run the hazard of framing a new conftitution fince the declaration of independence. They have tacitly adopted their old charter as the ground of civil government, so far as it is applicable to an independent people.
Agreeably to this charter, the supreme legislative authority of the ftate is vested in a governor, deputy governor, twelve assistants or counsellors, and the representatives of the people, styled the General Assembly. The governor, deputy governor and asliftants, are annually chosen by the freemen in the month of May. The representatives (their number not to exceed two from each town) are chosen by the freemen twice a year, to attend the two annual sessions, on the second Thursdays of May and October. This assembly has power to erect judicatories, for the trial of causes civil and criminal, and to ordain and establish laws for settling the forms and ceremonies of government.
By these laws the general alsembly is divided into two branches, called the upper and lower houses. The upper house is composed of the governor, deputy governor and affiitants. The lower house, of the representatives of the people. No law can pass without the concurrence of both houses. The judges of the superior court hold their offices during the pleasure of the general affembly. The judges of the county courts, and justices, are annually appointed. Sheriffs are appointed by the governor and council, without limitation of time. The governor is captain-general of the militia, the deputy-governor, lieutenant-general. All other military officers are appointed by the aisembly, and commissioned by the governor.
The mode of electing the governor, deputy-governor, assistants, treasurer and secretary, is as follows: The freemen in the several towns meet on the Monday next after the first Tuesday in April, annually, and