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been loft. Therefore the ancestors of the first settlers in America were uncivilized and unacquainted with the necessary arts of life.
11. America could not have been peopled by any colony from the more southern nations of the ancient continent; because none of the rude tribes of these parts poilelled enterprize, ingenuity, or power fufficient to undertake such a diftant voyage; but more especially, because, that in all America there is not an animal, tame or wild, which properly belongs to the warm, or temperate countries of the eastern continent, 'The firit care of the Spaniards, when they settled in America, was to stock it with all the domeltic animals of Europe. The firit fettlers of Virginia and New England, brought over with them horles, cattle, sheep, &c. Hence it is obvious that ihe people who first settled in America, did not originate from those countries where these animals abound, otherwise, having been accustomed to their aid, they would have supposed them necessary to the improvement, and even support of civil sveiety.
III. Since the animals in the northern regions of America correspond with those found in Europe in the same latitudes, while those in the tropical regions are indigenous, and widely different from those which inhabit the corresponding regions on the eastern continent, it is more than probable that all the original American animals were of those kinds which inhabit northern regions only, and that the two continents, towards the northern extremity, are so nearly united as that these animals might pass from one to the other.
IV. It having been established beyond a doubt, by the discoveries of Capt. Cook in his lait voyage, that at Kamjkatka, in about latitude 66° north, the continents of Asia and America are separated by a strait only 18 miles wide, and that the inhabitants on each continent are fimilar, and frequently pass and repass in canoes from one continent to the other; from these and other circumstances it is rendered highly probable that America was first peopled from the north-east parts of Asia. But since the Esquimaux Indians are manifestly a separate species of men, distinct from all the nations of the American Continent, in language, in difpofition, and in habits of life; and in all these respects bear a near resemblance to the northern Europeans, it is believed that the Esquimaux Indians emigrated from the rorth-west parts of Europe. Several circumstances confirm this belief. As early as the ninth century the Norwegians discovered Greenland, and planted colonies there. The communication with that country, after long interruption, was renewed in the last century. Some Lutheran and Moravian millionaries, prompted by zeal for propagating the Christian faith, have ventured to settle in this frozen region. From them we learn, that the north-west coast of Greenland is separated from America but by a very narrow trait, if separated at all; and that the Esquimaux of America perfectly resemble the Greenlanders in their afpect, dress, mode of living, and probably language. By these decisive facts, not only the consanguinity of the Esquimaux and Greenlanders is established, but the pollibility of peopling America from the north-west parts of Europe. On the whole it appears rational to conclude, that the progenitors of all the American nations, from Cape Horn to the southern limits of Labrador, from the similarity of their aspect, colour, &c. mi. grated from the north-eant parts oi dl; and that the nations that inhabit
Labrador, Esquimaux, and the parts adjacent, from their unlikeness to the rest of the American nations, and their resemblance to the northern Europeans, came over from the north-west parts of Europe.
Having given a fummary account of America in general; of its first discovery by Columbus, its extent, rivers, mountains, &c. of the Aborigines, and of the first peopling this continent, we shall next turn our attention to the discovery and settlement of North America.
A SUMMARY Account of the first Discoveries and SETTLEMENTS of
North AMERICA, arranged in Chronological Order. N JORTH AMERICA was discovered in the reign of Henry VII.
a period when the Arts and Sciences had made very considerable progress in Europe. Mary of the first adventurers were men of genius and learning, and were careful to preserve authentic records of such of their proceedings as would be interesting to pofterity. These records afford ample documents for American historians. Perhaps no people on the globe can trace the history of their origin and progress with fo much precision as the inhabitants of North America ; particularly that part of them who inhabit the territory of the United States. The fame which Columbus had acquired by his first discoveries on this
western continent, spread through Europe, and inspired many with 1496 the spirit of enterprize. As early as 1496, four years only after
the first discovery of America, John Cabot, a Venetian, obtained a commission from Henry VII. to discover unknown lands and annex them to the crown.
In the spring he failed from England with two ships, carrying with him his three sons, In this voyage, which was intended for China, he fell in with the north side of Terra Labrador, and coasted northerly as far as the 67th degree of latitude.
1497.] The next year he made a second voyage to America with his son Sebastian, who afterwards proceeded in the discoveries which his father had begun. On the 24th of June he discovered Bonavista, on the north-east side of Newfoundland. Beiore his return he traversed the coast from Davis's Straits to Cape Florida.
1502.] Sebastian Cabot was this year at Newfoundland ; and on his return carried three of the natives of that island to Henry VII.
1513.] In the spring of 1513, John Ponce failed from Porto Rico northerly, and discovered the continent in 30° 8' north latitude. He landed in April, a season when the country around was covered with verdure, and in full bloom. This circumftance induced him to call the country FLORIDA, which, for many years, was the common name for North and South America,
1516.] In 1516, Sir Sebastian Cabot and Sir Thomas Pert explored the coast as far as Brazil in South America.
This vast extent of country, the coast whereof was thus explored, remained unclaimed and unsettled by any European power, (except by the Spaniards in South America) for almost a century from the time of its discovery.
1524.] It was not till the year 1524 that France attempted discoveries on the American coast. Stimulated by his enterprizing neighbours, Francis 1. who pofieffed a great and active mind, fent John Verrazano, a Florentine, to America, for the purpose of making discoveries. He traversed the coast from latitude 280 to 50° north. In a second voyage, some time after, he was loft.
1525.] The next year Stephen Gomez, the first Spaniard who came upon the American coast for discovery, failed from Groyn in Spain, to Cuba and Florida, thence northward to Cape Razo, in latitude 46° north, in search of a north-west passage to the Eait Indies.
1534.] In the spring of 1534, by the direction of Francis I. a fleet was fitted out at St. Malo's in France, with design to make discoveries in America. The command of this fleet was given to James Cartier, He arrived at Newfoundland in May of this year. Thence he failed northerly; and on the day of the festival of St. Lawrence, he found himself in about latitude 48° 30' north, in the midst of a broad gulf, which he named St. Lawrence. He gave the same name to the river which cmpties into it. In this voyage, he failed as far north as latitude 51°, expecting in vain to find a passage to China.
1535.) The next year he failed up the river St. Lawrence 300 leagues to the great and swift Fall. He called the country New France; built a fort in which he spent the winter, and returned in the following spring to France.
1542.] In 1542, Francis la Roche, Lord of Robewell, was sent to Canada, by the French king, with three ships and 200 men, women and children. They wintered here in a fort which they had built, and returned in the spring About the year 1550, a large number of adventurers failed for Canada, but were never after heard of. In 1598, the king of France commissioned the Marquis de la Roche to conquer Canada, and other countries not possessed by any Christian prince. We do not learn, however, that la Roche ever attempted to execute his commiffion, or that any further aitempts were made to settle Canada during this century.
1539.] On the 12th of May, 1539, Ferdinand de Soto, with goo men, besides feamen, failed from Cuba, having for his object the conquest of Florida. On the 30th of May he arrived at Spirito Santo, from whence he travelled northward 450 leagues from the fea. Here he discovered a
river a quarter of a mile wide and 19 fathoms deep, on the bank 1542 of which he died and was buried, May 1542, aged 42 years. 1543 Alverdo his fucceffor built seven brigantines, and the year fol
lowing embarked upon the river. In 17 days he proceeded down the river 400 leagues, where he judged it to be 15 leagues wide. From the largeness of the river at the place of his embarkation, he concluded its fource must have been at least 400 leagues above, so that the whole length of the river in his opinion must have been more than 800 leagues. As he passed down the river, he found it opened by two mouths into the gulf of Mexico. These circumstances led us to conclude, that this river, fo early discovered, was the one which we now call the MifSippi
Jan. 6, 1549.] This year king Henry VII. granted a penfion for life to Sebastian Cabot, in consideration of the important services he had rendered to the kingdom by his discoveries in America.
1562.] The admiral of France, Chatillon, early in this year, sent cut a fleet under the command of John Ribalt. He arrived at Cape Francis on the coast of Florida, near which, on the first of May, he discovered and entered a river which he called May river. It is more than probable that this river is che fame which we now call St. Mary's, which forms a part of the southern boundary of the United States. As he coasted northward he discovered eight other rivers, one of which he called Port Royal, and failed up it several leagues. On one of the rivers le built a fort and called it Charles, in which he left a colony under the direction of
Captain Albert. The severity of Albert's mcasures excited a 1564 mutiny, in which, to the ruin of the colony, he was slain. Two
years after, Chatillon sent Rene I audonier, with three ships, to Florida. In June he arrived at the river May, on which he built a fort, and, in honour to his king, Charles IX. he called it CAROLINA.
In August, this year, Capt. Ribalt arrived at Florida the second time, with a fleet of seven vessels to recruit the colony, which, two years before, he had left under the direction of the unfortunate Capt. Albert.
The September following, Pedro Melandes, with fix Spanish ships, pursued Ribalt up the river on which he had settled, and overpowering him in numbers, cruelly massacred him and his whole company.
Melendes, having in this way taken poffeffion of the country, built three forts, and left them garrisoned with 1200 soldiers. Laudonier and his colony on May River, receiving information of the fate of Ribalt, took the alarm and cfcaped to France. s 1567.] A fleet of three ships was this year sent from France to Florida, under the command of Dominique de Gourges. The object of this expedition was to dispostess the Spaniards of that part of Florida which
they had cruelly and unjufifably seized three years before. He 1568
arrived on the coast of Florida, April 1568, and soon after made
a successful attack upon the forts. The recent cruelty of Melendes and his company excited revenge in the breast of Gourges, and roused the unjustifiable principle of retaliation. He took the forts; put most of the Spaniards to the sword; and having burned and demolished all their fortresses, returned to France. During the fifty years next after this event, the French enterprized no settlements in America.
1576.] Capt. Frobisher was sent this year to find out a north west passage to the East Indies. The first land which he made on the coast was a Cape, which, in honour to the queen, he called Queen Elizabeth's Foreland. In coating northerly he discovered the straits which bear his name. He prosecuted his search for a partage into the western ocean till he was prevented by the ice, and then returned to England.
1579.) In 1579, Sir Humphrey Gilbert obtained a patent from queen Elizabeth, for lands not yet poffefted by any Christian prince, provided he would take possession within fix years,
With this encourage1583 ment he failed for America, and on the 11t of August, 1583, an.
chored in Conception Bay. Afterward he discovered and took poliession of St. John's Harbour, and the country fouth. In pursuing his
discoveries he loft one of his ships, on the shoals of Sablon, and on his return home, a storm overtook him, in which he was unfortunately lost, and the intended settlement was prevented.
1584.] This year two patents were granted by queen Elizabeth, one to Adrian Gilbert, (Feb. 6.) the other to Sir Walter Raleigh, for lands not possessed by any Chriftian prince. By the direction of Sir Walter, two fhips were fitted and sent out, under the command of Philip Amidas, and Arthur Barlow. In July they arrived on the coast, and anchored in a harbour feven leagues west of the Roanoke. On the 13th of July, they, in a formal manner, took possession of the country, and, in honour of their virgin queen Elizabeth, they called it Virginia. Till this time the country was known by the general naine of Florida. After this VIRGINIA became the common name for all North America.
1585.) The next year, Sir Walter Raleigh sent Sir Richard Greenville to America, with seven ships. He arrived at Wococon Harbour in June. Having stationed a colony of more than a hundred people at Roanoke, under the direction of Capt. Ralph Lane, he coasted north-easterly as far as Chesapeek Bay, and returned to England.
The colony under Capt. Lane endured extreme hardships, and must have perished, had not Sir Francis Drake fortunately returned to Virginia, and carried them to England, after having made several conquests for the queen in the West Indies and other places.
A fortnight after, Sir Richard Greenville arrived with new recruits ; and, although he did not find the colony which he had before left, and knew not but they had perished, he had the rashness to leave so men aç the same place.
1587.] The year following, Sir Walter sent another company to Vir. ginia, under Governor White, with a charter and twelve assistants. In July he arrived at Roanoke. Not one of the second company remained, He determined, however, to risque a third colony. Accordingly he lest 115 people at the old settlement, and returned to England.
This year (Aug. 13) Manteo was baptized in Virginia. He was the first native Indian who received that ordinance in that part of America. On the 18th of August, Mrs. Dare was delivered of a daughter, whom she called VIRGINIA. She was the first English chiid that was born in North America.
1590.] In the year 1590, Governor White came over to Virginia with supplies and recruits for his colony ; but, to his great grief, not a man was to be found. They had all miserably famished with hunger, or were massacred by the Indians.
1602.] In the spring of this year, Bartholomew Gofnold, with 32 persons, made a voyage to North Virginia, and discovered and gave names to Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Elisabeth Islands, and to Dover Cliff. Elisabeth Iland was the place which they fixed for their first fettlement. But the courage of those who were to have rarried, failing, they all went on board and returned to England. All the attempts to settle this continent which were made by the Dutch, French, and English, from its discovery to the present time, a period of 110 years, proved ineffectual. The Spaniards only, of all the European nations, had been successful. There is no account of there having been one European