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at each end by pillars, and held up in the middle by braces on the top, in the nature of an arch.
East, or North Haven river rises in Southington, not far from a bend in Farmington river, and passing through Wallingford and North Haven, falls into New Haven harbour. It has been meditated to connect the source of this river with Farinington river.
Mill river and West river are inconsiderable streams, bounding the city of New Haven on the east and weit.
Weft of the Housatonik, are a number of small rivers which fall into the sound. Among there is Byram river, noticeable as forming a part of the boundary between New-York and Connecticut. But neither this, nor any of the others, are considerable enough to merit particular descriptions.
Harbours.] The two principal harbours are at New-London and New, Haven. The former opens to the south. From the light-house, which stands at the mouth of the harbour, to the town, is about three miles; the breadth is three quarters of a mile, and in some places more. The harbour has from five to fix fathom water-a clear bottom-tough ooze, and as far as one mile above the town is entirely secure, and commodious for large ships.
New-Haien harbour is greatly inferior to that of New-London. It is a bay which sets up northerly from the sound, about four miles. Its entrance is about half a mile wide. It has very good anchorage, and two and an half fathom at low water, and three fathom and four feet at common tides.
The whole of the sea coast is indented with harbours, many of which are safe and commodious, but are not susticiently used to merit a defcription.
Climate, Soil, and Productions. ] Connecticut, though subject to the extremes of heat and cold in their seasons, and to frequent sudden changes, is very healthful. As many as one in forty-six of the inhabitants of Connećticut, who were living in 1774, were upwards of seventy years old. From accurate calculation it is found that about one in eight live to the age of feventy years and upwards, one in thirteen to the age of eighty years, and one in about thirty to the age of ninety *.
In the maritime towns the weather is variable, according as the wind blows from the sea or land. As you advance into the country, the sea breezes have less effect upon the air, and confequently the weather is less variable. The shortest day is eight hours and fifty-eight minutes, and
* The following was extracted from the minutes of the Rev. Dr. Wales, formerly minister of Milford, now profejfor of divinity in Yale College.
• From January 1, 1771, to January 1, 1777,239 perjans died at Milford; of zubich 33, or about one-seventh part, were upwards of, 70 years old ; and 84, or about one-third part of the whole, were under 10 years.
From January 1, 1771, 10 June 3, 1782, died at Milford, 417 per: fons ; of which 31, or about one-thirteenih part of the whole number, were so years old and upward.'
Oiber calculations of a femilar kind, made in different parts of the fate from the bills of mortality, confirm the justness of the above proportion.
.. o . -- the. the longest fifteen hours. The northwest winds, in the winter season, are often extremely fevere and piercing, occafioned by the great body of snow which lies concealed from the diilolving influence of the sun in the immense forests north and northwest The clear and serene temperature of the sky, however, makes annends for the severity of the weather, and is favourable to health and longevity. Connecticut is generally broken land, made up of mountains, hills, and vallies ; and is exceedingly well watered. Some small parts of it are thin and barren. It lies in the fifth and fixth northern climates, and has a strong, fertile soil. Its principal productions are Indian corn, rye, wheat in many parts of the ftate, oats and barley, which are heavy and good, and of late buck-wheat--flax in large quantities--some hemp, potatoes of several kinds, pumpkins, turnips, peas, beans, &c. &c. fruits of all kinds, which are common to the climate. The soil is very well calculated for pasture and mowing, which enables the farmers to feed large numbers of neat cattle and horses. Ac. tual calculation has evinced, that any given quantity of the best mowing land in Connecticut, produces about twice as much clear profit, as the fame quantity of the best wheat land in the state of New-York. Many farmers, in the eastern part of the state, have lately found their advantage in raising mules, which are carried from the ports of Norwich and NewLondon, to the Weft-India islands, and yield a handsome profit. The beef, pork, butter, and cheese of Connecticut are equal to any in the world.
Trade.] The trade of Connecticut is principally with the West-India islands, and is carried on in vessels from sixty to one hundred and forty tons. The exports confift of horses, mules, oxen, oak itaves, hoops, pine boards, oak plank, beans, Indian corn, fish, beef, pork, &c. Horses, live cattle and lumber, are permitted in the Dutch, Danish, and French ports. Beef and 6th are liable to such heavy duties in the French islands, as that little profit arises to the merchant who fends them to their ports. Pork and four are prohibited. As the ordinance making free ports in the French West-India islands extends to all foreigners, the price of molafa ses and other articles, has been greatly enhanced by the English purchases for Canada and Nova-Scotia ; so that the trade of Connecticut with the French West-India islands is not profitable. Cotton, cocoa, indigo, and fugars are not permitted to be brought away by Americans. The fererity with which these prohibitory laws are administered is such, as that thefe articles cannot be fmuggled
Connecticut has a large number of coafting vessels employed in carrying the produce of the state to other states.- To Rhode-Illand, Massachusetts, and New-Hampthire they carry pork, wheat, corn, and rye.-To North and South Carolipas and Georgia, butter, cheele, salted beef, cyder, apples, potatoes, hay, &c, and receive in return, rice, indigo, and money. But as New-York is nearer, and the state of the markets always well known, much of the produce of Connecticut, especially of the western parts, is carried there ; particularly pot and pearl ashes, flax-feed, beef, pork, cheese, and butter, in large quantities. Moit of the produce of Connecticut river from the parts of Mafiachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont, as well as of Connecticut, which are adjacent, goes to the faine market. Considerable quantities of the produce of the easiern parts of the state are marketted at Boston and Providence,
* The multiplication of townships increases the number of representatives, which is already too great for the most democratical government, and unnecef sarily enhances the expence of maintaining civil government in the flate.