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at each end by pillars, and held up in the middle by braces on the top, in the nature of an arch.
East, or North Haven river rises in Southington, not far from a bend in Farmington river, and palling through Wallingford and North Haven, falls into New Haven harbour. It has been meditated to connect the fource of this river with Farmington river.
Mill river and West river are inconsiderable streams, bounding the city of New Haven on the east and welt.
West of the Housatonik, are a number of small rivers which fall into the found. Among these is Byram river, noticeable as forming a part of the boundary between New-York and Connecticut. But neither this, nor any of the others, are considerable enough to merit particular descriptions.
Harbours.] The two principal harbours are at New-London and New, Haven. The former opens to the south. From the light-house, which ftands at the mouth of the harbour, to the town, is about three miles; the breadth is three quarters of a mile, and in some places more. The harbour has from five to fix fathom water-a clear bottom-tough ooze, and as far as one mile above the town is entirely secure, and commodious for large ships.
New-Haven harbour is greatly inferior to that of New-London. It is a bay wlich sets up northerly from the found, about four miles. Its entrance is about halí a mile wide. It has very good anchorage, and two and an half fathom at low water, and three fathom and four feet at common tides.
The whole of the fea coast is indented with harbours, many of which are safe and commodious, but are not sufficiently used to merit a defcription.
Climate, Soil, and Produktions.] Connecticut, though subject to the extremes of heat and cold in their seasons, and to frequent sudden changes, is very healthful. As many as one in forty-fix of the inhabitants of Connecticut, who were living in 1774, were upwards of seventy years old. From accurate calculation it is found that about one in eight live to the age of feventy years and upwards, one in thirteen to the age of eighty years, and one in about thirty to the age of ninety *.
In the maritime towns the weather is variable, according as the wind, blows from the sea or land. As you advance into the country, the sea breezes have less effect upon the air, and confequently the weather is less variable. The shortest day is eight hours and fifty-eight minutes, and
* The following was extracted from the minutes of the Rev. Dr. Wales, formerly minifter of Milford, now professor of divinity in Yale College.
• From January 1, 1771, to January 1, 1777, 239 perjans died at Milford; of which 33, or about one-jevenih part, were upwards of. 70 years old; and 84, or about one-third part of the whole, were under 10 years.
« From January 1, 1771, to June 3, 1782, died at Milford, 417 pers. fons ; of which 31, or about one-thirteenih part of the whole number, were 80 years old and upward.'
Oiher calculations of a fimilar kind, made in different parts of the fate from. bills of mortality, confirm the justnefs of the above proportion.
the longest fifteen hours. The northwest winds, in the winter season, are often extremely severe and piercing, occasioned by the great body of snow which lies concealed from the diisolving influence of the sun in the immense forests north and northwest. The clear and serene temperature of the sky, however, makes aiends for the severity of the weather, and is favourable to health and longevity. Connecticut is generally broken land, made up of mountains, hills, and vallies; and is exceedingly well watered. Some small parts of it are thin and barren. It lies in the fifth and sixth northern climates, and has a strong, fertile soil. Its principal productions are Indian corn, rye, wheat in many parts of the state, oats and barley, which are heavy and good, and of late buck-wheat--flax in large quantities--some hemp, potatoes of several kinds, pumpkins, turnips, peas, beans, &c. &c. fruits of all kinds, which are common to the climate. The soil is very well calculated for pasture and mowing, which enables the farmers to feed large numbers of neat cattle and horses. Actual calculation has evinced, that any given quantity of the best mowing land in Connecticut, produces about twice as much clear profit, as the fame quantity of the best wheat land in the state of New-York. Many farmers, in the eastern part of the state, have lately found their advantage in railing mules, which are carried from the ports of Norwich and NewLondon, to the Weft-India islands, and yield a handsome profit. The beef, pork, butter, and cheese of Connecticut are equal to any in the world,
Trade.] The trade of Connecticut is principally with the West-India islands, and is carried on in vessels from sixty to one hundred and forty tons. The exports confift of horses, mules, oxen, oak 1taves, hoops, pine boards, oak plank, beans, Indian corn, fish, beef, pork, &c. Horses, live cartle and lumber, are permitted in the Dutch, Danish, and French ports. Beef and filh are liable to such heavy duties in the French islands, as that little profit arises to the merchant who sends them to their
ports. Pork and four are prohibited. As the ordinance making free ports in the French West-India islands extends to all foreigners, the price of molafa fes and other articles, has been greatly enhanced by the English purchases for Canada and Nova-Scocia ; so that the trade of Connecticut with the French West-India islands is not profitable. Cotton, cocoa, indigo, and fugars are not permitted to be brought away by Americans. The sererity with which these prohibitory laws are administered is such, as that these articles cannot be smuggled
Connecticut has a large number of coafting vessels employed in carrying the produce of the state to other fates.--To Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and New-Hampshire they carry pork, wheat, corn, and rye.-To North and South Carolipas and Georgia, butter, checle, salted beef, cyder, apples, potatoes, hay, &c. and receive in return, rice, indigo, and money. But as New-York is nearer, and the state of the markets always well known, much of the produce of Connecticut, especially of the western parts, is carried there; particularly pot and pearl afhes, flax-seed, beef, pork, cheese, and butter, in large quantities. Most of the proluce of Connecticut river from the parts of Maliachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont, as well as of Connecticut, which are adjacent, goes to the same market. Considerable quantities of the produce of the eastern parts of the state are marketted at Boston and Providence,
The value of the whole exported produce and commodities from this ftate, before the year 1774, was then estimated at about £,.200,000 lawfül money, annually. Since this time no accurate estimate has been made, so that it is impossible to tell whether the amount has since been increased or diminished.
In 1774, the number of shipping in Connecticut, was 180; their tonnage 10,317; seafaring men 1162 ; besides upwards of twenty fail of coafting vessels, which employed about ninety feamen. This state has not yet fully recovered the confusion in which it was involved by the late war ; so that the number of shipping, &c. las not, at any period fincę 1774, been ascertained with accuracy. It is probable, however, confidering the losses sustained by the war, the decay of the ship-building bufiness, and the number of unfortunate shipwrecks, and losses by hurricanes in the West-Indies, that the shipping and seamen are not now so numerous as in 1774.
The number of shipping from the port of New-London employed laft year in the European and West India trade, was four ships, one snow, fifty-four brigantines, thirty-two schooners, and forty-five floops. The number of horses and cattle exported from the district round New-London, from the 10th of January, 1787, to the 10th of January, 1788, was 6917; besides jack-asles imported and exported, not included. From 1986 to 1787, the number was 6671, so that the last year exceeded the other 246. From March, 1787, to January, 1788, 1454 horses, 700 oxen, and 23 cows, were exported from the port of Middleton.
Manufaktures.] The farmers in Connecticut and their families are moftly clothed in plain, decent, homespun cloth. Their linens and woollens are manufactured in the family way; and although they are generally of a coaser kind, they are of a stronger texture, and much more durable than those imported from France and Great-Britain. Many of their cloths are fine and handsome.
The woollen manufactory at Hartford has already been mentioned. The legislature of the state have encouraged it, and it bids fair to grow into importance. We have also mentioned Mr. Chitrendon's useful ma. chine for bending and cutting card teeth. This machine is put in motion by a manderil twelve inches in length, and one inch in diameter. Connected with the manderil are fix parts of the machine, independent of each other; the first, introduces a certain length of wire into the chops of the corone; the second, shuts the chops and holds fast the wire in the middle until it is finished ; the third, cuts off the wire ; the fourth, doubles the tooth in proper form ; the fifth, makes the last bend; and the fixth, delivers the finished tooth from the machine. The manderil is moved by a band wheel, five feet in diameter, turned by a crank. One revolution of the manderil makes one tooth; ten are made in a second, and 36,oco in an hour, &c. as has been already observed (P. 88.). With one machine like this, teeth enough might be made to fill cards fufficient for all the inanufacturers in New-England. In New Haven is a linen manufactory, which flourishes; and one for cotton is about to be established. In East Hartford is a glass work, a snuff and powder mill, and an iron work and fitting mill. Tron works are established also at Salisbury, Norwich, and other parts of the state. At Stafford is a furnace at which is made
large quantities of hollow ware, and other ironmongery, fufficient to fupply the whole state. · Paper is manufactured at Norwich, Hartford, New-Haven, and in Litchfield county. Nails, of every fize, are made in almost every town and village in Connecticut; so that considerable quantities can be exported to the neighbouring states, and at a better rate than they can be had from Europe. Ironmongery, hats of the best kind, candles, leather, shoes and boots, are manufactured in this state. We must not omit to mention wooden dishes, and other wooden-ware, which are made in vaft quantities in Suffield, and some few other places, and fold in almost every part of the eastern states. Oil-mills, of a new and very ingenious construction, have been erected in several parts of the ftate.
It appears from experiments made formerly in this state, that a bushel of sun-flower feed yields a gallon of oil, aud' that an acre of ground planted with the feed at three feet apart, will yield between forty and fifty bushels of the feed. This oil is as mild as sweet oil, and is equally agreeable with sallads, and as a medicine. It may moreover be used with ad. vantage in paints, varnishes, and ointments. From its being manufactured in our own country, it may always be procured and used in a fresh state. The oil is pressed from the feed in the same manner that cold drawn linseed oil is obtained from flax-seed, and with as little trouble. Sweet olive oil fells for six shillings a quart. Should the oil of the sunflower fell for only two-thirds of that price, the produce of an acre of ground, supposing it to yield only forty bushels of the seed, will be thirtytwo pounds, a sum far beyond the product of an acre of ground in any kind of grain. The feed is raised with very little trouble, and grows in land of moderate fertility. It may be gathered and shelled, fit for the extraction of the oil, by women and children.
Civil divisions and population.] Connecticut is divided into eight counties, viz. Hartford, New-Haven, New-London, Fairfield, Windham, Litchfield, Middlesex and Tolland. The counties are subdivided into upwards of eighty towníhips, each of which is a corporation, invested with power to hold lands, choose their own town officers, to make pru. dential laws, the penalty of transgression not to exceed twenty shillings, and to choose their own representatives to the general assembly. The townships are generally divided into two or more parishes, in each of which is one or more places for public worship.
The following table exhibits a view of the population, &c. of this ftate in 1782. Since this time the counties of Middlesex and Tolland have been constituted, and a number of new townships, made up of di. visions of the old ones, have impoliticly * been incorporated,
* The multiplication of townships increases the number of representatives, which is already too great for the most democratical government, and unnecefo farily enhances the expence of maintaining civil government in the flate.
Connecticut is the most populous, in proportion to its extent, of any of the thirteen states. It is laid out in Imall farms, from fifty to three or four hundred acres each, which are held by the farmers in fee simple; and are generally cultivated as well as the nature of the soil will admit. The ftate is chequered with innumerable roads or high ways, crossing each other in every direction. A traveller, in any of these roads, even in the moft unsettled parts of the state, will feldom pafs more than two or three miles without finding a house or cottage, and a farm under such improvements as to afford the necessaries for the support of a family. The whole Aate resembles a well cultivated garden, which, with that degree of industry that is neceffary to happiness, produces the necessaries and conveniencies of life in great plenty.
In 1756 the number of inhabitants in Connecticut was 130,614, In 1774, there were 197,856 fouls. In 18 years the increase was 67,2456 From 1974 to 1782, the increase was but 11,294 persons. This com, paratively small increase of inhabitants may be satisfactorily accounted for from the destruction of the war, and the numerous emigrations to Vermont, the western parts of New Hampshire, and other states.
* Middleton and Tolland, are not the shire towns of Middlefex' and Til. land counties. Courts are also held at Haddan, which is the half jhire town of Middlesex county,