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Labrador, Esquimaux, and the parts adjacent, from their unlikeness to tbe rest of the American nations, and their resemblance to the northern Europeans, came over from the north-west parts of Europe.
Having given a fummary account of America in general; of its first discovery by Columbus, its extent, rivers, mountains, &c. of the Aborigines, and of the first peopling this continent, we shall next turn our attention to the discovery and feitlement of North America.
A SUMMARY Account of the firft DISCOVERIES and SETTLEMENTS of
NORTH AMERICA, arranged in Chronological Order. N ORTH AMERICA was discovered in the reign of Henry VII. IV a period when the Arts and Sciences had made very confiderable progress in Europe. Mary of the first adventurers were men of genius and learning, and were careful to preserve authentic records of such of their proceedings as would be interesting to posterity. These records afford ample documents for American historians. Perhaps no people on the globe can trace the history of their origin and progress with fo much precision as the inhabitants of North America ; particularly that part of them who inhabit the territory of the United States. The fame which Columbus had acquired by his first discoveries on this
western continent, spread through Europe, and inspired many with 1496 the spirit of enterprize. As early as 1496, four years only after
the first discovery of America, John Cabot, a Venetian, obtained a commission from Henry VII. to discover unknown lands and annex them to the crown.
In the spring he failed from England with two ships, carrying with him his three sons. In this voyage, which was intended for China, he fell in with the north fide of Terra Labrador, and coated northerly as far as the 67th degree of latitude.
1497.] The next year he made a second voyage to America with his son Sebaltian, who afterwards proceeded in the discoveries which his father had begun. On the 24th of June he discovered Bonavista, on the north-east side of Newfoundland. Before his return he traversed the coast from Davis's Straits to Cape Florida.
1502.] Sebastian Cabot was this year at Newfoundland; and on his return carried three of the natives of that island to Henry VII.
1513.] In the spring of 1513, John Ponce failed from Porto Rico northerly, and discovered the continent in 30° 8' north latitude. He landed in April, a season when the country around was covered with verdure, and in full bloom. This circumstance induced him to call the country FLORIDA, which, for many years, was the common name for North and South America,
1516.] In 1516, Sir Sebastian Cabot and Sir Thomas Pert explored the coast as far as Brazil in South America.
This vast extent of country, the coast whereof was thus explored, remained unclaimed and unsettled by any European power, (except by the Spaniards in South America) for almost a century from the time of its discovery. C 3
1524.] It was not till the year 1524 that France attempted discoveries on the American coast. Stimulated by his enterprizing neighbours, Francis I. who pofieffed a great and active mind, sent John Verrazano, a Florentine, to America, for the purpose of making discoveries. He traversed the coaft from latitude 280 to 50° north. In a second voyage, some time after, he was loft.
1525.] The next year Stephen Gomez., the first Spaniard who came upon the American coast for discovery, failed from Groyn in Spain, to Cuba and Florida, thence northward to Cape Razo, in latitude 46° north, in search of a north-west passage to the Eait Indies.
1534.] In the spring of 1534, by the direction of Francis I. a fleet was fitted out at St. Malo's in France, with design to make discoveries in America. The command of this fleet was given to James Cartier. He arrived at Newfoundland in May of this year. Thence he failed northerly; and on the day of the festival of St. Lawrence, he found himself in about latitude 48° 30' north, in the midst of a broad gulf, which he named St. Lawrence. He gave the same name to the river which empties into it. In this voyage, he failed as far north as latitude 51°, expecting in vain to find a passage to China.
1535.] The next year he failed up the river St. Lawrence 300 leagues to the great and swift Fall. He called the country New France; built a fort in which he spent the winter, and returned in the following spring to France.
1542.] In 1542, Francis la Roche, Lord of Robewell, was sent to Canada, by the French king, with three ships and 200 men, women and children. They wintered here in a fort which they had built, and returned in the spring. About the year 1550, a large number of adventurers failed for Canada, but were never after heard of. In 1598, the king of France commissioned the Marquis de la Roche to conquer Cana. da, and other countries not posleited by any Christian prince. We do not learn, however, that la Roche ever attempted to execute his commission, or that any further attempts were made to settle Canada during this century.
1539.7 On the 12th of May, 1539, Ferdinand de Soto, with goo men, besides seamen, failed from Cuba, having for his object the conquest of Florida. On the 30th of May he arrived at Spirito Santo, from whence he travelled northward 450 leagues from the fea. Here he discovered a
river a quarter of a mile wide and 19 fathoms deep, on the bank 1542 of which he died and was buried, May 1542, aged 42 years. 1543 Alverdo his fucceffor built seven brigantines, and the year fol
lowing embarked upon the river. In 17 days he proceeded down the river 400 leagues, where he judged it to be 15 leagues wide. From the largeness of the river at the place of his embarkation, he concluded its fource must have been at least 400 leagues above, so that the whole length of the river in his opinion must have been more than 800 leagues. As he passed down the river, he found it opened by two mouths into the gulf of Mexico. These circumstances led us to conclude, that this river, so early discovered, was the one which we now call the MifDippic
discoveries he loft one of his ships, on the shoals of Sablon, and on his return home, a storm overtook him, in which he was unfortunately loft, and the intended settlement was prevented.
1584.] This year two patents were granted by queen Elizabeth, one to Adrian Gilbert, (Feb. 6.) the other to Sir Walter Raleigh, for lands not possessed by any Christian prince. By the direction of Sir Walter, two thips were fitted and sent out, under the command of Philip Amidas, and Arthur Barlow. In July they arrived on the coast, and anchored in a harbour seven leagues weit of the Roanoke. On the 13th of July, they, in a formal manner, took poflession of the country, and, in honour of their virgin queen Elizabeth, they called it Virginia. Till this time the country was known by the general naine of Florida. After this VIRGINIA became the common name for all North America.
1585.) The next year, Sir Walter Raleigh sent Sir Richard Greenville to America, with seven ships. He arrived at Wococon Harbour in June. Having stationed a colony of more than a hundred people at Roanoke, under the direction of Capt. Ralph Lane, he coasted north-easterly as far as Chesapeek Bay, and returned to England.
The colony under Capt. Lane endured extreme hardships, and must have perished, had not Sir Francis Drake fortunately returned to Vir. ginia, and carried them to England, after having made several conquests for the queen in the West Indies and other places.
A fortnight after, Sir Richard Greenville arrived with new recruits ; and, although he did not find the colony which he had before left, and knew not but they had perished, he had the rashness to leave so men at the same place.
1587.] The year following, Sir Walter fent another company to Vir. ginia, under Governor White, with a charter and twelve assistants. In July he arrived at Roanoke. Not one of the second company remained, He determined, however, to risque a third colony. Accordingly he left 115 people at the old settlement, and returned to England.
This year (Aug. 13) Manteo was baptized in Virginia. He was the first native Indian who received that ordinance in that part of America, On the 18th of August, Mrs. Dare was delivered of a daughter, whom she called VIRGINIA. She was the first English child that was born in North America.
1590.] In the year 1590, Governor White came over to Virginia with supplies and recruits for his colony ; but, to his great grief, not a man was to be found. They had all miserably familhed with hunger, or were massacred by the Indians.
1602.] In the spring of this year, Bartholomew Gosnold, with 32 persons, made a voyage to North Virginia, and discovered and gave names to Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Elisabeth Ilands, and to Dover Cliff. Elisabeth Inand was the place which they fixed for their first fettlement. But the courage of those who were to have tarried, failing, they all went on board and returned to England. All the attempts to settle this continent which were made by the Dutch, French, and English, from its discovery to the present time, a period of 110 years, proved ineffectual. The Spaniards only, of all the European nations, had been successful. There is no account of there having been one European