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- We cannot be understood hereby to direft or wish that any indulgence should be granted to thoje persons commonly called Quakers, whole principles being inconfifient with any kind of government, we have found it neceffary by the advice of our parliament here, to make a farp law againft them, and are well coniented that you do the like there.'
count of the jealousies of government which then prevailed there, and the misfortunes of the plague and fire of London.
The colony now attained a more prosperous condition than it had hitherto known. A spirit of industry and economy pervaded the people, and many of the magiftrates and merchants became opulent. The civil and ecclesiastical parts of the constitution had, from the beginning, been har moniously united, and continued to be until 1670, when a division, which had been made some years before in the church, originated a difpute, in which the civil authority interposed, and claimed a superiority to the ecclefiaftical. The clergy, notwithstanding, continued to have great influence in government until the dissolution of the charter.
The war, commonly called Philip's war, occasioned the next disturbe ances in the colony. This war lasted several years. Many Indians were engaged in it. They meditated the general destruction of the Enge lish, and much cruelty was exercised by both parties, until a period was put to hoftilities by the death of Philip, the Indian chief, in 1676.
In the height of the distress of the war, and while the colony was contending for the possession of the foil with the natives, complaints were renewed in England, which struck at the powers of government, and an enquiry was set on foot, and followed from time to time until 1684, when a judgment was given against the charter.
The fucceeding year, the legislature, expecting every day to be super. ceded, paid little attention to public affairs.
In 1636, May 15th, a commissioner arrived, appointipg a president, and divers gentlemen of the council, to take upon them the administration of government. This administration was short, and productive of no grievances.
On the 19th of December, the same year, arrived Sir Edmund Andros, with a commission from King James for the government of New-Enge land. Connecticut, however, was not included in his commission. His kind professions encouraged, for a while, the hopes of the people, who, from his character, expected a different treatment from him. He soon acted out himself, and, together with his council, did many arbitrary acts to the oppression of the people, and the enrichment of himself and followers.
The press was restrained--public thanksgiving, without an order from the crown, was prohibited— fees of all officers were encreased, and the people compelled to petition for new patents of their lands, for which they were obliged to pay exorbitant prices.
The colony was greatly difquieted by these and similar tyrannical proj ceedingy; and when news arrived of the declaration of the Prince of Orange, in 1689, the governor and about fifty others were seized and confined, and afterwards fent home, and the old magiftrates reinitated in their offices.
The affairs of the colony were conducted with prudence, and liberty being granted to the people by the crown, to exercise for the present their former government, they proceeded with regularity according to the old charter, striving in vain to get it confirmed, until, in 1692, they received and adopted a new one. The new charter comprehended all the territory of the old one, together with the colony of New-Plymouth,
the Province of Main and Nova Scotia, and all the country between the Province of Main and Nova Scotia, as far northward as the River St. Lawrence *; also Elizabeth Ilands, and the islands of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard:
By the new charter, the appointment of the governor was in the crown, and every freeholder of forty thillings sterling a year, and every inhabitant of forty pounds sterling personal estate, was a voter for representatives. · The French of Quebec inftigating the Indians, and joining with them to plunder and kill the English, and the French of Acadie infefting the coaits, and taking many veilels, the general court in the winter of 1689 meditated an attack upon Port-Royal, now called Annapolis-Royal, and upon Quebec. Forces were sent out and took Port-Royal, and the whole fea coast from that to Penobscot, and the New-England settlements.
· The success of this expedition, and the ravage of the French and Indians at the opening of the spring, determined the general court to profecute their defign upon Quebec. But the season was so far advanced when the troops arrived at Canada—the French fo fuperior in number the weather so tempestuous, and the fickness so great among the foldiers, that this expedition was attended with great loss.
A truce was concluded with the neighbouring Indians, while the troops were gone out of the colony, but hoftilities were soon renewed.
The French and Indians molefted the inhabitants of the frontiers daily. Acadie fell again into the hands of the French, and was afterwards retaken by the English. The inhabitants of this territory experienced the greatest sufferings at every change of their master.
A new expedition was planned against Canada, and affiftance from England folicited year after year for the reduction of the French, who were endeavouring by the aid of the favages to ruin entirely the British settlements.
In 1692, the spirit of infatuation respecting witchcraft was again revived in New England, and raged with uncommon violence. Several hundreds were accused, many were condemned, and some executed. Various have been the opinions respecting the delusion which occasioned this tragedy. Some pious people have believed there was something supernatural in it, and that it was not all the effect of fraud and imposture. Many are willing to suppose the accusers to have been under bodily diforders which affected their imaginations. This is kind and charitable, but scarcely probable. It is very possible that the whole was a scene of fraud and impofture, began by young girls, who at first perhaps thought of nothing more than exciting pity and indulgence, and continued by adult persons, who were afraid of being accused themselves. The one and the other, rather than confess their fraud, suffered the lives of so
* Since the treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, Nova-Scotia was arbitrarily taken from Massachusetts, and erected into a separate government. And by the treaty of 1783, the territory between the Highlands, which form a part of the northern boundary of the United States, and the River St. Lawrence, was ceded to Great Britain.
many innocents to be taken away through the credulity of judges and juries.
That the odium of this tragic conduct might not reft upon the NewEnglanders alone, it ought here to be observed, that the same infatuation was at this time current in England. The law by which witches were condemned, was a copy of the itatute in England; and the practice of the courts was regulated by precedents there afforded. Some late inítances prove that England is not entirely cured of that delusion.
In 1911, some ships and troops being fent over, the colony troops joined them, and an attempt was made upon Canada, in which the greater part of them perished. This disaster was very grievous to the people of New-England, and many persons, in consequence of it, abandoned every expectation of conquering Canada.
Frequent excursions on the frontiers immediately followed ; but as soon as the peace of Utrecht was known, the Indians of the various tribes requested to be at peace with the English-alked pardon for their violation of former treaties, and engaged for the future to demean themselves as good subjects of the crown of Great-Britain. Articles of a general treaty were drawn up and signed by both parties.
From 1675, when Philip's war began, to the present time, 1713, five or fix thousand of the youth of the country had perished by the enemy, or by distempers contracted in the service of their country. The colonies, which usually doubled their inhabitants in five and twenty years, had not at this time double the number which they had fifty years before. The prospect of a long peace, which the general treaty afforded, was interrupted by the machinations of one Ralle, a French Jesuit, who instigated the Indians to make fresh incursions on the borders of the colony in 1717. After se. veral ineffectual attempts to persuade the Indians to delift from their opera. tions, forces were sent out by government from time to time, who deftroyed several parties of the Indians, but there was no ceffation of hostilities until the death of Ralle in 1724.
In 1725, a treaty was made with the Indians, and a long peace fuccecded it. The length of the peace is in a great measure to be attributed to the favourable acts of government, made foon after its commencement, respecting the Indian trade.
In 1721, the small-pox made great havock in Boston and the adjacent towns. Of 5889, who took it in Boston, 844 died. Inoculation was introduced on this occasion, contrary however to the minds of the inhabitants in general. Dr. C. Mather, one of the principal ininisters of Boston, had observed, in the Philofophical Transactions, a letter from Timonius from Constantinople, giving a favourable account of the operation. He recommended it to the phyficians of Botton to make the experiment, but all declined except Dr. Boylston. To thew his confidence of success, he began with his own children and servants. Many pious people were ftruck with horror at the idea, and were of opinion that if any of his patients shouli die, he ought to be treated as a murderer.
All orders of men, in a greater or less degree, condemned a practice. which is now universally approved, and to which thousands owe the prcfervation of their lives.