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Literary and humane Societies.] The literary, humane and charitable inftitutions in Massachusetts, exhibit a fair trait in the character of the inhabitants. Among the firit literary institutions in this state, is the AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, incorporated May 4th, 1780. It is declared in the act, that the end and design of the institution, is to promote and encourage the knowledge of the antiquities of America, and of the natural history of the country, and to determine the uses to which the various natural productions of the country may be applied. Also to promote and encourage medical discoveries, mathematical disquisitions, philosophical enquiries and experiments; astronomical, meteorological and geographical observations; improvements in agriculture, arts, manufacture, commerce, and the cultivation of every science that may tend to advance a free, independent, and virtuous people. There are never to be more than two hundred members, nor less than forty. This fociety has four stated annual meetings.
The MASSACHUSETTS CHARITABLE SOCIETY, incorporated December 16, 1779, is intended for the mutual aid of themselves and families, who
may be distressed by any of the adverse accidents of life, and for the comforting and relieving of' widows and orphans of their deceased members. The members of this society meet annually, and are not to exceed an hundred in nuinber.
The BosTON EPISCOPAL CHARITABLE SOCIETY, first instituted in 1724, and incorporated February 12, 1984, has for its object, charity to such as are of the episcopal church, and to such others as the society thall think fit; but more especially the relief of those who are members of, and benefactors to the fociety, and afterwards become suitable objects of its charity. The members of this society meet annually, and are not to exceed one hundred in number.
The MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOCIETY, was incorporated November 1, 1781. The design of this institution is, to promote medical and furgical knowledge; enquiries into the animal æconomy, and the properties and effects of medicine, by encouraging a free intercourse with the gentlemen of the faculty throughout the United States of America, and a friendly correspondence with the eminent in those professions throughout the world, as well as to make a just discrimination between fuch as are duly educated and properly qualified for the duties thereof, and those who may ignorantly and wickedly administer medicine, whereby the health and lives of many valuable individuals may be endangered, and perhaps loft to the community.
Further to evidence their humanity and benevolence, a number of the medical and other gentlemen, in the town of Bolton, in 1785, formed a society, by the naine of the HUMANE SOCIETY, for the purpose of recovering persons apparently dead, from drowning, fuffocation, strangling, and other accidents. This Humane Society have erected three huts, furnished with wood, tinder-boxes, blankets, &c. one on Lovel's land in Boston harbour, one on Nantaiket beach, and another on Situate beach near Marshfield, for the comfort of ship-wrecked seamen. Huts of the fame kind are erected on Plumb-Island, near Newbury, by the Marine Society of that place; and there are also some contiguous to Hampton and Salisbury beach,
At their semiannual meetings, a public discourse is delivered by fome perfon appointed by the trustees for that purpose, on fome medical subject connected with the principal object of the fociety; and as a itimulus to investigation, and a reward of merit, a medal is adjudged annually, by the president and trustees, to the person who exhibits the moft approved differtation.
The SOCIETY FOR PROPAGATING THE Gospel among the Indians and others in North America, was incorporated November 19, 1787 They are enabled to receive subscriptions of charitably difpofed persons, and may take any personal estate in fucceßion. All donations to the for ciety, either by fublcriptions, legacy or otherwise, excepting such as may be differently appropriated by the donors, to make a part of, or be put into the capital stock of the society, which is to be put out on interest on good security, or otherwise improved to the best advantage, and the income and profits are to be applied to the purposes aforesaid, in fuch manner as the fociety shall judge inoft conducive to answer the design of their institution.
This Society is formed into a board of commissioners from the Scot's Society for promoting Christian Knowledge among the Indians in America.
Next to Pennsylvania, this state has the greatest number of societies for the promotion of useful knowledge and human happiness; and as they are founded on the broad basis of benevolence and charity, they caanot fail to prosper. These institutions, which are fast encreasing in almost every late in the union, are so many evidences of the advanced and advancing state of civilization and improvement in this country. They prove, likewise, that a free republican government, like ours, is of all others the most happily calculated to promote a general diffusion of useful knowledge, and the most favourable io the benevolent and humane feelings of the human heart.
Literature, Colleges, Academies, &c.] According to the laws of this Commonwealth, every town having fifty housholders or upwards, is to be constantly provided with a school-maiter, to teach children and youth to read and write; and where any town has 100 families, there is also to he a grammar-school set up therein, and some discreet person, well instructed in the language, procured to keep the fame, and be suitably paid by the inhabitants.
Thele laws respecting schools, are not so well regarded in many parts of the state, as the wile purposes which they were intended to anfier, and the happiness of the people require.
Next in importance to the Grammar Schools are the Academies, in which, as well as in the Grammar Schools, young gentlemen are ficted for admission to the University.
DUMMER ACADEMY, at Newbury, was founded many years since, by means of a liberal donation from the Honourable William Dummer, formerly Lieutenant Governor, and a worthy man, whose name it has ever since retained. It was incorporated in 1782, and is under the superintendence of fourteen respectable trustees.
Phillips's ACADEMY, at Andover, owes its existence to the benefactions of the Honourable Samuel Phillips, Etq; of Andover, in the 6
county of Essex, and State of Massachusetts Bay, and the Honourable John Phillips, Esq; of Exeter, in the county of Rockingham, and State of New Hamphire. It was incorporated October 4, 1780, and has twelve trustees.
LEICESTER ACADEMY, in the township of Leicester, was incorporated in 1784. For the encouragement of this inttitution, Ebenezer Craits and Jacob Davis, Esqrs. generously gave a large and commodious manfionhouse, lands and appurtenances in Leicester, for that use.
At Williams-Town, in Berkshire county, is another Academy, which is yet in its infancy. Colonel Ephraim Williams has made a handsome donation in lands, for its encouragement and support.
At Hingham is a well endowed school, or Academy, which, in honour of its principal donor and founder, is called DERBY SCHOOL.
These Academies have very handsome funds, and are flourithing. The designs of the truitees are, to diseminate virtue and true piety, to promote the education of youth in the English, Latin, Greek, and French languages, to encourage their instruction in writing, arithmetic, oratory, gecgraphy, practical geometry, logic, philosophy, and such other of the liberal arts atid sciences, or languages, as may be thought expedient.
HARVARD COLLEGE (ncw i NIVERSITY) takes its date from the year 1638. Tuo years before, the general court gave four hundred pounds for the support of a public school at Newtown, which has since been called Cambridge. 'This vear (1638) the Rev. Mr. John Harvard, a worthy minifter residing in Charleston, died, and left a donation of £779 for the use of the forementioned public school. In honour to the memory. of fo liberal a benefactor, the general court the same year, ordered that the school should take the name of HARVARD COLLEGE.
In 1642 the College was put upon a more respectable footing, and the gorcrnor, deputy governor and magistrates, and the ininisters of the fix next adjacent towns, with the prelident, were erected into a corporation for the ordering and managing its concerns.
This year nine young gentlemen rcccived the degree vi Batchelor of Aris. It received iis firit charter in 1650.
Cambridge, in which the university is situated, is a pleasant village, four miles weltward from Boiton, containing a number of gentlemens seats, which are ncat and well buiit. The university consis of four elegant brick edifices, handsomely enclosed. They stand on a beautiful green, which spreads to the north-weit, and exhibit a plcasing view.
The names of the several buildings are, Harvard-Hall, Massachusetts, Hall, Hollis-Hall, and Polden-Chapel. Harvard- Hall is divided into fix apartments; one of which is appropriated for the library, one for the museum, two for the philosophical apparatus, one is used for a chapel, and the other for a dining hail. The library, in 1787, consisted of 12,000 volumes; and will be continually increasing from the interest of permanent funds, as well as from casual benefactions. The philosophical apparatus belonging to this university, cost between 1400 and £1500 lawful money, and is the molt elegant and complete of any in America.
Agreeably to the present constitution of Malachusetts, his excellency the governor, lieutenant governor, the council and fenate, the president of the university, and the ministers of the congregational churches in the
towns of Boston, Charleston, Cambridge, Waterton, Roxbury, and Dorchester, are, ex officiis, overseers of the University,
The corporation is a distinct body, consisting of seven members, in whom is vetted the property of the university.
The instructors in the university are, a president, Hollisian professor of divinity, Hollisian professor of the mathematics and natural philosophy, Hancock professor of oriental languages, professor of anatomy and surgery, professor of the theory and practice of physic, professor of chymistry and materia medica, and four tutors.
This university as to its library, philosophical apparatus, and professorships, is at present the first literary institution on this continent. Since its first establishment, 3146 students have received honorary degrees from its successive officers ; 1002 of whom have been ordained to the work of the gospel ministry. It has generally from 120 to 150 students.
Chief towns. Boston is the capital, not only of Massachusetts, but of New-England. It is built on a peninsula of an irregular form, at the bottom of Massachusetts Bay. The neck or isthmus which joins the peninsula to the continent, is at the south end of the town, and leads to Roxbury. The length of the town, including the neck, is about three miles ; the town itself is not quite two miles. Its breadth is various. At the entrance from Roxbury it is narrow. The greatest breadth is one mile and 139 yards. The buildings in the town cover about 1000 acres. It contains near 1800 dwelling-houses. - By a late computation, the number of inhabitants was found to te 14,640, of these 6,570 were males, and 8,070 females. This number is exclusive of strangers and transient persons, who make nearly one-third of the whole number of fouls in Boston. The ratable pells, at the time of the census, were about 2,620. In this town there are seventy-nine streets, thirty-cight lanes, and twenty-one allcys, exclusive of squares and courts ; and about eighty wharfs and quays, very convenient for vefsels. The principal wharf extends 600 yards into the sea, and is covered on the north side with large and convenient stores. It far exceeds any
other wharf in the United States.
In Boston are fixteen houses for public worship; of which nine are for congregationalists, three for epifcopalians, two for baptists, one for the friends, and one for universalifts, or independents. There is one old meeting-house desolate and in ruins, in School-street.
The other public buildings are the state-house, Faneuil-hall, an alms house, a work house, and a bridewell. That building which was formerly the governor's house, is now occupied in its several apartments, by the council, the treasurer, and the secretary; the two latter hold their offices in it. The public granary is converted into a store, and the linen manufactory house is now occupied by the bank. Most of the public buildings are handsome, and some of them are elegant. The town is irregue larly built, but, as it lies in a circular form around the harbour, it exhibits a very handsome view as you approach it from the fea. On the west fide of the town the mall, a very beautiful public walk, adorned with rows of trees, and in view of the common, which is always open to refreshing breezes. Beacon hill, which overlooks the town from the west, affords a fine variegated prospect. The harbour of Boston is safe, and large enough to contain 500 ships N
at anchor, in a good depth of water; while the entrance is so narrow as scarcely to admit two ships abreast. It is diversified with many islands, which afford rich pafturing, hay and grain. About three miles from the town is the castle, which commands the entrance of the harbour. Here are mounted about forty pieces of heavy artillery, besides a large number of a smaller size. The fort is garrisoned by a company of about fifty soldiers, who also guard the convicts that are sentenced, and sent here to labour. These are all employed in the nail manufactory.
In Boston there are two grammar schools, and four for writing, &c. whose masters are supported by the town: besides twelve or fourteen private schools.
It has been computed, that during the fiege in 1775, as many houses were destroyed in Boston by the British troops, as were burnt in Charleston. Since the peace, a spirit of repairs and improvement has diffused itself among the inhabitants. A few years may render the metropolis of Massachusetts as famed for arts, manufactures, and commerce, as any city in the United States.
The town next to Boston, in point of numbers and commercial impor. tance, is Salem. This town was settled as early as 1628, by Mr. Endicot, afterwards governor, and a colony under his direction. It is the oldest town in the state, except Plymouth, which was settled eight years before. In 1786, it contained 646 dwelling-houses, and 6700 inhabitants. In this town are five churches for congregationalists, one for episcopalians, and a meeting-house for the friends. Its harbour is inferior to that of Boston. The inhabitants, notwithstanding, carry on a large foreign trade. Salem is fifteen miles north-eastward of Boston, and is considered as the metropolis of the county of Eflex.
Newbury Port, forty-five miles eastward from Boston, is situated on the southwest side of Merrimak river, about two miles from the sea. The town is about a mile in length, and a fourth of a mile in breadth, and contains 450 dwelling-houses, and 4113 natural inhabitants. It has one episcopal, one presbyterian, and two congregational churches. The business of ship-building is largely carried on here. These towns, with Marblehead, Gloucester or Cape Ann, and Beverly, carry on the fishery, which furnishes the principal article of exportation from Massachusetts.
Worcester is one of the largest inland towns in New-England. It is the ńhire town of Worcester county, and is about forty-seven miles westward of Boston.
On Connecticut river, in the county of Hampshire, are a number of very pleasant towns. Of these Springfield is the oldest and largeft. It ftands on the east side of Connecticut river, about ninety-six miles westward of Boston. The courts are held here and at Northampton alternately. Within its ancient limits are about 700 families, who are divided into eight worshipping assemblies. The original township has been divided into six parishes, some of which have been incorporated into distinct townships. The settlement of Springfield was begun in 1636, by William Pynchon, Esq; whose descendants are still living in the place. He called ihe place Springfield, in remembrance of his native place in England, which bore that name.
Hadley is a neat little town on the opposite fide of the river from Northampton.