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Literary and humane Societies.] The literary, humane and charitable inftitutions in Massachuseres, exhibit a fair trait in the character of the inhabitants. Among the firit literary institutions in this ftate, is the AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, incorporated May 4th, 1780. It is declared in the act, that the end and design of the institution, is to promote and encourage the knowledge of the antiquities of America, and of the natural history of the country, and to determine the uses to which the various natural productions of the country may be applied. Also to promote and encourage medical discoveries, mathemati. cal disquisitions, philosophical enquiries and experiments; aftronomical, meteorological and geographical observations; improvements in agriculture, arts, manufacture, commerce, and the cultivation of every science that may tend to advance a free, independent, and virtuous people. There are never to be more than two hundred members, nor less than forty. This fociety has four stated annual meetings.
The MASSACHUSETTS CHARITABLE SOCIETY, incorporated December 16, 1779, is intended for the mutual aid of themselves and families, who may be distressed by any of the adverse accidents of life, and for the comforting and relieving of widows and orphans of their deceased members. The members of this society meet annually, and are not to exceed an hundred in number.
The BOSTON EPISCOPAL CHARITABLE SOCIETY, first instituted in 1724, and incorporated February 12, 1784, has for its object, charity to such as are of the episcopal church, and to such others as the society shall think fit; but more efpecially the relief of those who are members of, and benefactors to the society, and afterwards become suitable objects of its charity. The members of this society meet annually, and are not to exceed one hundred in number.
The MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOCIETY, was incorporated November 1, 1781. The design of this institution is, to promote medical and surgical knowledge; enquiries into the animal æconomy, and the properties and effects of medicine, by encouraging a free intercourse with the gentlemen of the faculty throughout the United States of America, and a friendly correspondence with the eminent in those professions throughout the world, as well as to make a just discrimination between such as are duly educated and properly qualified for the duties thereof, and those who may ignorantly and wickedly administer medicine, whereby the health and lives of many valuable individuals may be endangered, and perhaps lost to the community.
Further to evidence their humanity and benevolence, a number of the medical and other gentlemen, in the town of Botton, in 1785, formed a society, by the name of the HUMANE SOCIETY, for the purpose of recovering persons apparently dead, from drowning, fuffocation, strange ling, and other accidents. This Humane Society have erected three huts, furnished with wood, tinder-boxes, blankets, &c. one on Lovel's Island in Boston harbour, one on Nantaiket beach, and another on Situate beach near Marshficid, for the comfort of ship-wrecked seamen. Huts of the fame kind are erected on Plumb-Island, near Newbury, by the Marine Society of that place; and there are also some contiguous to Hampton and Salisbury beach.
county of Elex, and State of Massachusetts Bay, and the Honourable John Phillips, Esq; of Exeter, in the county of Rockingham, and State of New Hampire. It was incorporated October 4, 1780, and has twelve trustees.
LEICESTER ACADEMY, in the township of Leicester, was incorporated in 1984. For the encouragement of this inftitution, Ebenezer Craits and Jacob Davis, Elors. generously gave a large and commodious manfionhouse, lands and appurtenances in Leicester, for that use.
At Williams-Town, in Berkshire county, is another Academy, which is yet in its infancy. Colonel Ephraim Williams has made a handsomne donation in lands, for its encouragement and support.
At Hinghan is a well endowed fchool, or Academy, which, in honour of its principal donor and founder, is called DERBY SCHOOL.
There Academies have very handsome funds, and are flourishing. The defigns of the truitees are, to diseminate virtue and true piety, to promote the education of youth in the English, Latin, Greek, and French languages, to encourage their instruction in writing, arithmetic, oratory, gecgraplıy, practical geometry, logic, pluilosophy, and such other of the liberal arts and sciences, or languages, as may be thought expedient.
ILIRVARD COLLEGE (now I'NIVERSITY) takes its date from the year 1638. Two years before, the general court gave four hundred pounds for the support of a public school at Nowtoun, which has since been cillad Cambridge. This car (1638) the Rer. Mr. John Harvard, a wortliy minister reficing in Charleston, died, and left a donation of 1779 for the use of the forementioned public school. In honour to the iremory of fo liberal a benefactor, the general court the same year, ordered that the school should take the name of HARVARD COLLEGE.
In 1672 the College was put upon a more respectable footing, and the governor, deputy governor and magistrates, and the ininisters of the six next adjacent towns, with ihe president, were erected into a corporation for the ordering and managing its concerns. This year nine young gentlemen received the degree of Batchelor of Arts. It received its firit charter in 1650.
Cairbridge, in which the university is situated, is a pleasant village, four miles westward from Boston, containing a number of genilemens seats, which are neat and well buiit. The university consists of four elegant brick edifices, handsomely enclosed. They stand on a beautiful green, which spreads to the north west, and exhibit a pleasing view.
The names of the several buildings are, Harvard-Hall, Massachusetts, Hall, Hollis-Hall, and Holden-Chapel. Harvard-Hall is divided into fix apartments; one of which is appropriated for the library, one for the museum, two for the philosophical apparatus, one is used for a chapel, and the other for a dining hall. The library, in 1787, consisted of 12,000 volumes; and will be continually increasing from the interest of permanent funds, as weil as from casual benefactions. The philosophical apparatus belonging to this university, cost between 1400 and £1500 lawful money, and is the most elegant and complete of any in America,
Agreeably to the present constitution of Matiachusetts, his excellency the governor, lieutenant governor, the council and fenate, the president of the university, and the ministers of the congregational churches in the