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Soil and Prodretions.] On the sea.coaff, and many places inland, the foil is fandy, but affords good pasturage. The intervals at the foot of the mountains are greatly enriched by the freshets which bring down the soil upon them, forming a fine mould, and producing corn, grain, and herbage in the moit luxuriant plenty. The back lands, which have been cultivated, are generally very fertile, and produce the various kinds of grain, fruits, and vegetables, which are common to the other parts of NewEngland. The uncultivated lands are covered with extensive forests of pine, fir, cedar, oak, walnut, &c.

Manufactures.] As this fate is the living magazine of mafts and naval timber, and affords every other material neceffary for ship-building, that business may here be carried on extensively, and to very great advantage. Indeed much was done in this way before the war. A number of merchant vessels, and some frigates were built annually, and sold in Europe ; and in the time of the war, a seventy-four gun fhip was built at Portsmouth. Since the peace, this butiness has been revived.

Trad.] The principal trade of New Hampshire was formerly to the Welt-India fugar-ifianus, to which they exported all the various kinds of lumber—fortes, cattle, sheep, poultry, falted provisions, pot and pearl ashes, dried fish, &c and received in return, ruin, sugar, molasses, cocoa, &c. Their thips were usually sent to the West India islands for freight to Europe, or to the Bay of Honduras, for logwood; and from thence to Europe, where they were fold. They also exported mafts, yards, and Ipars for the roval navy of Great Britain.

Population, Character, &C. No actual cenfus of the inhabitants has been lately made. In the Convention at Philadelphia, in 1787, they were reckoned at 102,000.

There is no characteristical difference between the inhabitants of this and the other New-England States. The ancient inhabitants of NewHampthire were emigrants from England. Their pofterity, mixed with emigrants from Mattachusetts, till the lower and middle towns.

Emigrants from Connecticut compose the largest part of the inhabitants of the wchern towns, adjoining Connecticut river. Slaves there are none, Negroes, who were never numerous in New-Hampshire, are all free by the firit article of the bill of rights.

Isands.] The Ines of Shoals are the only islands in the sea, belonging 10 New-Harphire They are convenient for the Cod-fishery, which was formerly carried on there to great advantage, but the people are now few and poor.

Indions.] There are no Indians in the state. The scattered remains of furier crioes, retired to Canada many years since.

Calitatio.] The Constitution of the state which was adopted in 1784, is taken, al.noit verbatim, from that of Massachusetts. The principal differences, except such as arise from local circumstances, are the following: 'The files of the Conftite:tions, and of the supreme magistrates in each Kate, are different. In one it is GOVERNOR of the COMMONWEALTH of Valechefeets,' in the other, · PRESIDENT of the STATE of New-Hamp

• shire.

shire.' In each ftate, the fupreme imagistrate has the title of His ExCELLENCY.'

The President of New Hampshire, like the Governor of Massachusetts, has not the power of negativing all bills and resolves of the fenate and house of representatives, and of preventing their palling into laws, unless approved of by two-thirds of the members prefent. In New-Hampshire • the President of the State presides in the fenate', in Mafsachusetts the fenate choose their own President.

There are no other differences worth mentioning, except it be in the mode of appointing militia officers, in which New Hampthire has greatly the advantage of Malachusetts. See Majachusetts.

Colleges, Academies, Ec. In the township of Hanover, in the western part of this state, is Dartmouth College, situated on a beautiful plain, about half a mile east of Connecticut River, in latitude 43° 33'. li was named after the Right Honoralile William Earł of Dartmouth, who was one of its principal benefactors. It was founded by the late pious and benevolent Dr. Eleazer Wheelock, who, in r-69, obtained a royal charter, wherein ample privileges were granted, and suitable provision made for the education and instruction of youth, of the Indian tribes, in reading, writing, and all parts of learning which should app ar neceffary and expedient for civilizing and christianizing the children of Pagans, as well as in all liberal arts and sciences; and aifo of English youths and any others. The very humane and laudable attempts which have been made to christianize and educate the Indians, have not, through their native untractableness, been crowned with that success which was hoped and expected. Its situation, in a frontier country, exposed it, during the late war, to many

inconvenien. cies, which prevented its rapid progress. It flourished, however, amidit all its embarrassments, and is now one of the most growing feininaries in the United States. It has, in the four claffes, about 150 ftudents, under the direction of a President, two Profeflors, and two Tutors. It has twelve Trustees, who are a body corporate, invested with the powers neceffary for such a body. The library is elegant, containing a large collection of the most valuable books. Its apparatus consilts of a competent number of useful inftruments, for making mathematical and philofophical experiments. There are three buildings for the use of the itudents; one of which was erected in 1786, and is not yet finished. It is one hundred and fifty feet in length, and fifty in breadth, threc stories high and handsomely built. It has a broad passage running through its centre from end to end, intersected by three others. In front is a large green encircled with a number of handsome houses. Such is the falubrity of the air, that no instance of mortality has happened among the students since the first establishment of the College.

At Exeter, there is a tourishing Academy, under the instruction of Mr. William Woodbridge; and at Portfinouth a Grammar-School. All the towns are bound by law to support schools ; but the grand jurors, whose business it is to see that these laws are executed, are not so careful as they ought to be in presenting fins of omission,

Churches, &c.] The churches in New- Hampshire are principally for con. gregationalists; Tome for Presbyterians and Baptiits, and one for Episcopa


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lians. Ministers contract with their parishes for their support. No parish is obliged to have a minister; but if they make a contract with one, they are obliged by law to fulfil it. Liberty is ever given to any individual of a parilh to change their denomination; and in that case they are liberated from their part of the parish contract.

Damage sustained in the late war.] The enemy never entered NewHampshire. This is the only state that escaped their ravages. Their lofies of men and ships, damage by depreciation of money and loss of business, were felt in proportion as in other stares.

History.] The first discovery made by the English of any part of NewHampshire, was in 1614, by Capt. John Smith, who ranged the shore from Penobscot to Cape Cod; and in this route, discovered the river, Piscataqua. On his return to England, he published a description of the country, with a map of the coast, which he presented to Prince Charles, who gave

it the name of New-ENGLAND. In 1621, Capt. John Mason obtained from the council of Plymouth, a grant of all the land from the river Naumkeag (new Salem) round Cape Ann, to the river Merrimak, up each of those rivers, and from a line connecting the furthest sources of them inclusively, with all islands within three miles of the coast. This district was called Mariana. The next year, another grant was made to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Mason jointly, of all the lands between the Merrimak and Sagadahok, extending back to the great lakes of Canada. This grant, which includes a part of the other, was called Laconia.

Under the authority of this grant, in 1623, a settlement was made at Little Harbour, near the mouth of the Piscataqua.

In 1629, fome planters from Massachusetts-Bay, wishing to form a settlement in the neiglıbourhood of Piscataqua, procured a general meeting of the Indians, at Squamícot falls, where, with the universal consent of their Jubjekts, they purchased of the Indian chiefs, for a valuable consideration, a tract of land comprehended between the rivers Piscataqua and Merrimak, and a line connecting these rivers, drawn at the distance of about thirty iniles from the sea-coast, and obtained a deed of the same, witnessed by the principal perfons of Piscataqua and the Province of Main.

The same year, Mason procured a new patent, under the common seal of the council of Plymouth, of all lands included within lines drawn from the mouths and through the middle of Pifcataqua and Merrimak rivers, until fixty miles were compleated, and a line crossing over land connecting those points, together with all islands within five leagues of the coast. This tract of land was called New-Hampshire. It comprehended the whole of the above-mentioned Indian purchase ; and what is singular and unaccountable, the same land which this patent covered, and much more, had been granted to Gorges and Mason jointly seven years before.

In 1635, the Plymouth company resigned their charter to the king, but this refignation did not materially affect the patentecs under them, as the several grants to companies and individuals were mostly confirmed, as some subsequent period, by charters from the crown.

In 1640, four distinct governments had been formed on the several branches of Pifcataqua. The people under these governments, unprotected by


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England, in consequence of her own internal distractions, and too much divided in their opinions to form any general plan of government which could afford any prospect of permanent utility, thought best to folicit the protection of Massachusetts. That government readily granted their request, and accordingly, in April, 1641, the principal settlers of Pifcataqua, by a formal instrument, resigned the jurisdiction of the whole to Massachusetts, on condition that the inhabitants should enjoy the same liberties with their own people, and have a court of justice erected among them. The property of the whole patent of Portsmouth, and of one-third of that of Dover, and of all the improved lands therein, was reserved to the lords and gentlemen proprietors and their heirs for ever. These reservations were acceded to on the part of Massachusetts, and what is extraordinary, and manifested the fondness of the government for retaining them under their jurisdicton, a law, of Massachusetts, declaring that none but church members should fit in the general court, was dispensed with in their favour. While they were united with Massachusetts, they were governed by the general laws of the colory, and the conditions of the union were strictly observed. During this period, however, they had to struggle with many difficulties. One while involved together with Massachusetts, in a bloody war with the Indians; and repeatedly disturbed with the warm disputes occasioned by the ineffectual efforts of Mason's heirs to recover the property of their ancestor. These disputes continued until 1679, when Mason's claim, though never established in law, was patronized by the crown, and New-Hampshire was erected into a separate government. Massachusetts was directed to recal ail her commissions for governing in that province, which was accordingly done. The first commission for the government of New-Hampshire, was given to Mr. Cutt, as president of the province, on the 18th of September, 1679.

In the year 1691, Mason's heirs sold their title to their lands in NewEngland, to Samuel Allen, of London, for 4, 2750. This produced new controversies concerning the property of the lands, which embroiled the province for many years.

In 1692, Colonel Samuel Allen was commissioned governor of NewHampshire. Eight years after he came over to America to prosecute his claim, but died before the affair was concluded.

The inhabitants about this time fuffered extremely from the cruel barbarity of the Indians ; Exeter, Dover, and the frontier settlements, were frequently furprized in the night--the houses plundered and burnt-the men killed and scalpedand the women and children either inhumanly murdered, or led captives into the wilderness. The first settlers in other parts of New-England were also, about this time, harrassed by the Indians, and it would require volumes to enumerate their particular sufferings.

In 1737, a controversy, which had long sublisted between the two go. vernments of Maffachusetts and New Hamp/hire, respecting their divi. fional line, was heard by commissioners appointed by the crown for that purpofe. These cominiffioners determined that the northern boundaries of Massachusetts should be a line three miles north from the river Merrimak as far as Pantucket falls, then to run west 10° north, until it meets New-York line. Although Mallachusetts felt themselves aggrieved by this decision, and attempied several ways to obtain redress, the line has



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never been altered, but is, at present, the divisional line between the two ftates. Douglass mentions, That the governor of Maffachusetts, for many years, was also governor of New Hampshire, with a distinct commifsion.' This must have been many years after New-Hampshire had been erected into a separate government in 1679. He adds that NewHampshire entered a complaint to the king in council against the joint governor, relative to settling the boundaries between the two provinces. This complaint was judged by the king to have been well founded, and • therefore a separate governor for New Hampshire was commissioned anno 1740.'

Although New Hampshire was under the jurisdiétion of the governor of Massachusetts, yet they had a separate legislature. They ever bore a proportionable Share of the expences and levies in all enterprizes, expediiions, and military exertions, whether planned by the colony or the crown. In every stage of the opposition that was made to the encroachments of the British parliament, the people, who ever had a high sense of liberty, cheerfully bore their part. At the commencement of hoftilities, indeed, while their council was appointed by royal mandamus, their patriotic ardour was checked by these crown officers. But when freed from this restraint, they flew eagerly to the America:: standard when the voice of their country declared for war, and their troops had a large share of the hazard and fatigue, as well as of the glory of accomplishing the late revolution.



miles. Length 150


Between { m and so 30%Ealt Longitude. Breadth 60)

. Boundaries.] BOUNDER northwardly by New Hampfhire and Ver

; ticut, Rhode Island, and the Atlantic ; east by the Atlantic and Massachusetts Bay.

Rivers.) Merrimak river, before described, runs through the northcastern part of this flate. Charles river rises from five or fix sources, on the fouth-east side of Hopkinton and Holliston ridge. The main stream runs north-east, then north and north-eastwardly, round this ridge, until, in Natick township, it mingles with Mother-Brook, which is a considerable branch of Charles river. The river thus formed, runs westward, tumbling

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